Study Notes on Argument

By Gaurav Mohanty|Updated : December 3rd, 2021

As we all know that the exam session is about to start, it is now high time that you all start working hard. Different Examination bodies have announced the dates of Exams. In today's post, we are providing study notes on Arguments in Verbal & Logical Reasoning for MBA Exam 2021. We will soon cover other complicated topics of Logical reasoning as well. Start working hard, keep giving mock tests to identify your weak areas. Happy Learning.


  • Arguments are the reasons that support a conclusion.
  • It is formulated so that the conclusion is deduced from the Premises
  • Erroneous arguments are called fallacies in logic.
  • It is also a form of communication that tries to persuade its audience to adopt a particular position about a topic.
  • It has two main components:
  1. Premises, Statements, or propositions.
  2. Conclusion

Deductive Argument

  • In this, the Conclusion is guaranteed to be true if the premises are true.
  • The conclusion cannot be more general than the premises.
  • It starts with a general statement and ends with logical conclusions derived from statements.
  • It may be either valid or invalid.
  • If the argument is valid, it is a valid deduction and if the premise is true, the conclusion must be true.
  • A Valid argument cannot have true premises and a false conclusion.


1. Consider the premises given below

All mobile phones use rare earth metal.

Rare earth metal is very cheap.

Conclusion- Therefore, mobile phones are cheap.

  • Here, the conclusion is Mobile phones are cheap and it is derived from the premises.
  • If we assume the given premies to be true, then this conclusion will also be true.
  • This means it is a valid argument. But is not a sound argument because Rare metals are very expensive.
  • In reality, Rare earth metals are very expensive, but we have to move according to the premises and then derive a conclusion.
  • The validity of the argument depends solely on whether the argument has a valid logical form or not.


2. Consider the Premises given below

All professors have a Ph.D.

Suresh has a Ph.D.

Conclusion: Suresh is a professor.

  • Now, this is an invalid argument because the conclusion is not derived from the premises.
  • There is no guarantee that Suresh is a professor based on the premises.


3. Consider the Premises given below

Some students are JRFs.

Some JRFs are professors.

Conclusion: Some students are professors.

  • Here also, this is an invalid argument as this conclusion cannot be logically derived from this given premises.

Inductive Argument

  • In this, generalized decisions are made after observing, or witnessing repeated instances of something.
  • This argument can be strong and weak.
  • It is the opposite of the deductive.
  • In inductive general statements are combined to infer a general conclusion.
  • Example-  "The coin I pulled from the bag is a 5 rupee coin. A third coin from the bag is also 5 rupee coin. Therefore, all the coins in the bag are 5 rupee coin.

Analogous arguments

  • These are basically the argument which has an analogy.
  • Analogy signifies a similar relationship.
  • To argue by analogy is to argue that because two things are similar, what is true of one is also true of the other.
  • Example: She is as blind as a bat.
  • Life is like chocolate.
  • Finding that lost dog will be like finding a needle in a haystack.

Circular argument or Transcendental argument

  • This argument ends at the same place where it started.
  • Example: Violent video games cause teens to be violent because violent teens play violent video games.
  • You must obey the law because it's illegal to break the law.

Question for practice

1. Premises – All cats have long tails.

Shanku is a Cat.

Conclusion- Therefore, Shanku has tails.

What type of argument is it?

A. Deductive

B. Inductive

C. Circular

D. Abductive

 2. Statement- “Poverty is a problem for society because it creates trouble for people throughout the community.”

 What type of argument is it?

A. Deductive

B. Inductive

C. Circular

D. Abductive

Answer in the comments.



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