Important Rules of Conjunctions
And, As well as, Both….and, Not only …. but also
These co-relatives are used to join nouns, pronouns, etc. but as far as adjectives are concerned, they join two desirable or two undesirable adjectives but not a desirable adjective with an undesirable one.
Ex: He is not only dishonest but also lazy.
If two objects are joined by as well as, with, along with, and not, in addition to, but, besides, except, rather than, accompanied by, the verb agrees with the first subject.
Ex: Ram, as well as his friends, is coming.
Many times conjunctions are used at wrong places. In a sentence, the conjunction must not be misplaced.
Ex: He cheated not only his friends but also his parents.
When conjunctions are in pair, the pair must be correct.
Ex: so….as, Whether….or, as soon as, No sooner than, Until/ Unless…., lest ……should..
- Though he worked hard but he failed. (incorrect)
- Though he worked hard yet he failed. (correct)
So …..that, Too……to
- I am so sleepy. (incorrect)
- I am very sleepy. (correct)
- It is too hot to go out.
- This problem is so complicated that no one can solve it.
- This problem is too complicated for anyone to solve it.
Ex: Neither Ram nor Sam has come.
Neither of means none of the two. If more than two persons or things are present none of is used.
Either of means one of the two. If more than two persons or things are present one of is used.
Ex: None of his four sons looked after him.
As soon as…
- As soon as he will come, I will call you up. (incorrect)
- As soon as he comes, I will call you up. (correct)
Note: If/ when is not followed by then.
- When I come, then, I will meet you. (incorrect)
- When I come, I will meet you. (correct)
Similarly ‘since / as / because’ are not followed by ‘so / therefore’.
Ex: Since I was ill, I could not come.
Note: ‘As you sow, so shall you reap’(a phrase where 'as' is followed by 'so')
- No sooner…….than
Note: Always use the pair.
- No sooner did he see me, when he ran away. (Replace when by than).
- No sooner had the thief seen the police then he ran away. (Replace then by than)
- Hardly I saw him when I stopped my car. (incorrect)
- Hardly did I see him when I stopped my car. (correct)
Use the correct pair
- Run fast lest you will miss the train. (incorrect)
- Run fast lest you should miss the train. (correct)
Note: Lest can also take simply V1 after it.
Ex: Take care lest he falls.
Unless, Until and Till
1. There is a difference between until and unless. Until is time-oriented and unless is action-oriented.
- Until the light turns red, no one will stop.
- Unless you work hard, you won’t succeed.
2. We do not begin a sentence with till.
- Till the train gets the signal, it will not proceed. (incorrect)
- Until the train gets the signal, it will not proceed. (correct)
Until / Unless is not followed by not.
- Until the train will not get the signal it will not run. (incorrect)
- Until the train gets the signal, it will not run. (correct)
Note: Will / Would / Shall does not come after Until and Unless
- Unless the Government will not take action, corruption will not stop. (incorrect)
- Unless the Government takes action, corruption will not stop. (correct)
In affirmative sentences, doubt and doubtful are followed by if/whether. In negative or interrogative sentences doubt and doubtful are followed by that.
- Doubt – if / whether
- Doubtful - if / whether
Negative / Interrogative
- Doubt – that
- Doubtful – that
- He doubts that she will help him. (incorrect)
- He doubts if/ whether she will help him. (Affirmative sentence)
- I have no doubt if/whether he will cheat me. (incorrect)
- I have no doubt that he will cheat me. (Negative sentence)
- I am doubtful that my parents will allow me to go to the party. (incorrect)
- I am doubtful if/whether he will allow me to go to the party. (Affirmative sentence)
- He is not doubtful if/whether I will finish his work in time. (incorrect)
- He is not doubtful that I will finish his work on time. (Negative sentence)
The same is followed by that or as.
The same is followed by that if a verb comes after the same.
- This is the same book that I wanted.
- He is the same boy that met me in the market.
But the same is followed by as if there is no verb after as.
Ex: This is the same book as mine.
1. As…..as and so…..as are used as a comparison. As.…….as is used in positive as well as negative sentences and so……..as is used in negative sentences.
- He is as intelligent as you. ( positive sentence )
- He is not as intelligent as you. ( negative sentence )
- He is not so intelligent as you. ( negative sentence )
2. Only the positive degrees of adverbs and adjectives can be used with As……as and so…..as.
- He ran as faster as he could. (incorrect)
- He ran as fast as he could. (correct )
- He is as better as you. ( incorrect)
- He is as good as you. (correct )