This article will cover all the basics of one of the most fundamental topics of English Grammar: Pronouns. Now, all you need to do is read the article and solve the quiz associated with it. This will enhance your understanding of the topic in a much better way.
Important Notes & Rules of Pronoun
Generally, (but not always) pronouns stand for (pro + noun), a word that takes the place of or refers to a noun.
Subjective case pronouns are pronouns that act as subjects of sentences. It includes (I, you, he, she, and it, we, they).
- I am your Friend.
- She is my girlfriend.
Objective case pronouns are pronouns that act as objects of sentences. It includes (me, you, him, her, and it, us, them).
- Will you meet us in the movie theatre?
- Return this book to him.
Possessive pronoun forms (mine, yours, ours, theirs).
- This book is mine.
- Mine is newer than yours.
Demonstratives pronoun (this/that/these/those/such) can behave either as pronouns or as determiners.
As pronouns, they identify or point to nouns.
- That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw)
- I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience)
- Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made)
As determiners, they modify a noun and act as adjectives.
- These cookies are delicious.
- Those pastries were even better.
The relative pronouns (who/whoever/which/that) relate groups of words to nouns or other pronouns.
- The student who studies hardest usually does the best.
The indefinite pronouns (everybody/anybody/somebody/all/each/every/some/none/one) do not substitute nouns but function themselves as nouns.
- Everyone was dumbstruck by the illusion created by the magician.
- Someone stole my purse.
NOTE: Indefinite pronoun takes a singular verb.
The reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another.
Each other is used when referring to two persons.
- My mother and I give each other a good time.
If more than two people are involved one another is used.
- We should love one another.
Reciprocal pronouns can also take possessive forms:
- They borrowed each other’s ideas.
- The scientists in the lab often use one another’s equipment.
The Reflexive pronouns are (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.)
- Go to the party and enjoy yourself.
Some rules of correct usage of Pronoun
- When there are more than two pronouns in the same sentence they should be arranged in the second person, the third person then the First-person if the sentence indicates positive sense.
- You, he & I have tried our best to win the game.
- You & Rajesh have wasted your time.
But if the sentence indicates negative sense then it should be arranged in the First-person, the second person then the Third person.
- I, you & he have cheated in the exam.
- You & he are responsible for this theft.
- The pronouns who, that and which become singular or plural depending on the subject. If the subject is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb.
- He is the only one of those employees who is always on time. (means he is the only person reaching on time)
The word who refers to one (of those employees). Therefore, we use a singular verb is.
- He is one of those men who are always on time. (means there are many persons reaching on time, he is one of those)
The word "who" refers to men. Therefore, we use the plural verb are.
- Pronouns that are singular (I, he, she, everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody, no one, nobody, someone, somebody, each, either, neither,etc.) require singular verbs.
Each, either, and neither, followed by of always take singular verbs.
- Each of the girls sings well.
- Neither of them is available to make the statement.
4. The possessive pronouns yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs and whose never have apostrophes.
- It is wrong to write your’s truly. Instead, it should be yours truly
- Reflexive pronouns are used when both the subject and the object of a verb are the same person or thing.
For example, there is a sentence “Raj helped.” This is incomplete as it doesn’t say anything about the person who was helped. Again, Raj helped raj, here repetition of raj is creating the confusion as it is the same person or different. So we say:
- Raj helped himself.
– If the object of a preposition refers to a previous noun or pronoun, we use a reflexive pronoun:
- Raj bought it on himself.
- I worked for myself.
The object himself & myself are the same person as the subject Raj & I.
- My brother and myself did it. (Replace myself with i)
Don’t use myself unless the pronoun I or me precedes it in the sentence.
– In certain cases, a reflexive pronoun may come first.
- Doubting himself, the man proceeded cautiously.
– When pronouns are combined, the reflexive will take either the first person
- Raju, Madan, and I have deceived ourselves into believing in Mohan.
or, when there is no first-person, the second person:
- You and Raj have deceived yourselves.
- Verb & Preposition are followed by the objective case of pronoun.
- Let they go. (replace they with them)
- She is teaching Rohit & he. (Replace he with him)
- Singular pronouns must stay singular throughout the sentence.
- Someone has to do it and they have to do it well. ( Replace they have with has)
Someone is singular, but "they" is plural.
- Both should be followed by “and”.
- Both you as well as Raju are going to Chennai. (Replace as well as with and)
Avoid using negative with both.
- Both of them are not going tomorrow (Replace both with neither and remove not)
- If two identical parts of speech are connected with either…or/neither…nor/not only…but also we use verb and pronoun according to the nearest subject.
- Neither the house nor its contents is for sale. (replace is with are)
- Either he or you are responsible for this mess. (exchange the place of he and you & replace are with is)