Study Note on Verbal Reasoning

By Gaurav Mohanty|Updated : December 21st, 2021

Verbal Reasoning. Check the post to read now.

Get here the complete study notes on the topic Verbal Reasoning for the Aspirants of BBA & IPM                          


  • Analogy means a comparison in order to draw similarities. In analogy, you have to establish a relationship between two elements using their features or characteristic which are similar. In analogy questions, there are many various types of relations that can be established.
  • In the given table, we have discusses some examples on the basis of different relationships established among them.



Country & Currency

Japan: Yen
UAE: Dinar

Quantity & Unit

Energy: Joule
Power: Watt

Instrument & Measurement

Ammeter: Current
Anemometer: Velocity of wind

Unit & Group

Fish: Shoal

Animal & Baby

Lion: Cub
Cat: Kitten

Male & Female

Tiger: Tigress
Peacock: Peahen

Animal & Movement

Snake: Crawl
Eagle: Swoop

Animal/thing & Sound

Cats: Meow
Bats: Screech
Elephants: Trumpet
Deer: bellow
Chimpanzee: Scream

Duck: Quack

Frog: Croak

Unit & Class

Cup: Crockery

Unit & Home

Dog: Kennels
Horse: Stables

Game & Venue

Cricket: Pitch
Baseball: Baseball field or Diamond

Profession and Tool

Author: Pen
Tailor: Needle
Doctor: Stethoscope

Product & Raw Material

Oil: Seed
Metal: Ore


Unit & Part

Book: Chapter
Pen: Nib
Fan: Blade

Universal Pair

Chair: Table
Door: Window

Study & Topic

Cardiology: Heart
Entomology: Insects

Types of Analogy

  • Analogous pair: Such questions give the relationship between a pair; the first element of the second pair is given and we have to find the second element of the second pair based on a similar relationship given by the first pair.


1) Oasis: Sand ∷ Island:?
a) River

b) Sea

c) Water

d) Waves

Explanation: Here, the first pair is ⇒ “Oasis: Sand” and the second pair is “Island:?”. And, “∷” sign means first pair and second pair share a similar relationship. ‘Oasis’ is a mass of water amidst ‘Sand’ similarly ‘Island’ is a mass of land amidst ‘water’. Note: It’d be Island: Sea had the first pair been Oasis: Desert. We’re given the name of thing desert is made of i.e. Sand. So, we’ll use the name of thing Sea is made of i.e. Water.

2) Annihilation: Fire ∷ Cataclysm 
a) Earthquake

b) Flood

c) Emergency

d) Steam

Explanation: Here, ‘Annihilation’ i.e. total destruction is the result of ‘Fire’. So, ‘Cataclysm’ i.e. the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land is the result of ‘flood’.

  • Simple Analogy: In such questions a simple statement is given where a relationship is given and we’re asked the second element for the term given in question, like the example below:


1) Sweet is to Chocolate as Book is to….?
a) Dictionary

b) Library

c) Encyclopedia

d) Atlas

Here, Chocolate can be sweet or bitter but ‘Sweet’ is the enlarged form of chocolate. Similarly, ‘Encyclopedia’ is an enlarged form of a ‘book’.

  • Choosing the analogous pair: In such questions, a pair is given in the question and we’ve to find a suitable pair from the options given that resembles the similar relationship as in the question like the examples below:


1) Borrow: Steal

a) Enter: Trespass

b) Tell: Speak

c) Ask: Beg

d) Hit: Kill

Here, for both ‘borrowing’ and ‘stealing’ we take someone else’s thing. The only difference being that the first thing we take is with the permission of another while second thing is taken without the permission of another. Similarly, among all the options, we see this option is seen in ‘Enter: Trespass’ where we ‘enter’ after taking permit while ‘trespassing’ is done without any permit whatsoever.

2) Cool: Frigid

a) Livid: Lurid

b) Pool: Placid

c) Tepid: Torrid

d) Lack: Abundant

Here, ‘Frigid’ means extremely cold. So, in Cool: Frigid, the second is the extreme version of another. Let’s check the meaning of all options given:

a) Livid ⇒ Discolored beneath the skin: Lurid⇒ Ghastly pale  ⇒ This doesn’t give an extreme version of paleness.

b) Pool⇒ A small lake: Placid⇒ a body of water free from disturbance by heavy waves  ⇒ This doesn’t give an extreme version of the pool.

c) Tepid⇒ Moderately warm: Torrid⇒ Extremely hot ⇒ Torrid is the extreme version of Tepid.

d) Lack: Abundant⇒ Present in great quantity ⇒ These two are opposite not extreme versions.

We can see that only option c) fulfills the criteria.

  • Multiple word analogy: These are the type of questions discussed above with the only difference being that here three elements are given in a pair instead of two and we have to select the suitable option. Like the example below:


1) Music: Guitar: Performer

a) Dance: Tune: Instrument

b) Food: Recipe: Cook

c) Patient: Medicine: Doctor

d) Trick: Rope: Acrobat.

In, Music: Guitar: Performer, ‘Performer’ plays ‘Music’ on ‘Guitar’. So, III element is playing/doing I element on II element.

From options, we can clearly see that this pattern is followed only in option d) i.e. Acrobat (An athlete who performs acts requiring skill) performs ‘Tricks’ on a ‘Rope’.

Word Formation

Word formation by unscrambling letters

  • In such questions, usually jumbled letters are given various types of questions are asked on the unscrambled word thus formed. For example:

a) VARSTE ⇒ Choose the correct order of letters that are required to form the correct word.

i) 2, 3, 1, 6, 4, 5

ii) 3, 2, 4, 5, 6, 1

iii) 4, 5, 2, 3, 1, 6

iv) 6, 3, 4, 5, 2, 1

Here, we’ve to create the correct word and ‘V’ has been labeled as 1, ‘A’ as 2, ‘R’ as 3, ‘S’ as 4, ‘T’ as 5, and ‘E’ as 6.
On observing we can see the correct word is STARVE. Hence, the correct order is 4(for S) 5(for T) 2316 ⇒ 452316 ⇒e. option iii) is correct.

b) Unscramble the words in options and find the odd-one-out:

ii) WKLA

iii) PEELS

iv) UNR

Let’s unscramble the options:



iv) UNR⇒ RUN.
We can see that all options except PEELS or SLEEP are active actions while sleep is a passive activity. So, option iii) is an odd-one-out.

c) Unscrambled the word in question and find the option most similar in meaning to the rearranged word:

i) Intelligent

ii) Difficult

iii) Laborious

iv) Quick
On unscrambling the word we can see that the given word is DILIGENT. And, a synonym for diligent is Laborious so option iii) is the answer. A similar question on antonym can also be asked.


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