Medieval History is an important topic asked in General Awareness. It is asked in various Defence Exams such as CAPF (AC) CDS, AFCAT, Air Force Group X & Y etc.
Here we will enlighten you about the Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty & Khilji Dynasty here. Many questions are asked about this topic.
Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty, The Khilji Dynasty
The Delhi Sultanate in India from the 13th to the 16th century was a major Muslim sultanate. It started with the campaigns of Muadizz al-Dīn Muhammad ibn Sām (Ghūr's Muhammad; Ghūr's brother Sultan Ghiyās̄ al-Dīn) and his lieutenant Qutub-ud-Dīn Aibak, mainly between 1175 and 1206.
Prithviraj Chauhan ruled the Indian land until the end of the 12th century. The important battles which were fought by him were 1st Battle of Tarain (1191) and 2nd Battle of Tarain (1192) against Mohammad Ghori. Mohammad Ghori established himself as the Sultan and later appointed the Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Below is the timeline of the dynasties
Dynasties of Delhi Sultanate
Period of Rule
Mamluk or Slave dynasty
1206 – 1290
Qutubuddin Aibek, Iltutmish, Razia Sultan, Ghiyasuddin Balban
1290 – 1320
1321 – 1413
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq
1414 – 1450
1451 – 1526
Slave Dynasty (1206-1290)
1206 - 1210
1) Most trusted slave of Muhammed of Ghori
2) Died in 1210 while playing Chaughan (Polo)
3) He was granted the title Lakh Bakhsh
4) He constructed the Quwat-ul-Islam mosque in Delhi and Adhai din ka jhonpra at Ajmer
5) He also started the construction of Qutb Minar in the honour of Sufi saint Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakthiyar Kaki
1210 – 1236
1) The real consolidator of Turkish conquests
2) He saved the Delhi Sultanate from the invasion of the Mongol, Chengiz Khan
3) He introduced the currency system of Tanka and Jittal
4) He organized Iqta System – land grant to soldiers and nobility
5) He set up the Chahalgani system – nobility of 40 members
6) He completed the construction of Qutb Minar
1236 – 1240
1) The first and the only Muslim lady who ever ruled India
2) Though a popular ruler, she was disliked by the Chahalgani who wanted to put a puppet ruler at the throne
3) She was defeated and killed by Bandits while in a fight
An era of weak rulers
After the death of Raziya, weak rulers ascended the throne, who were supported by the Nobles. Bahram Shah, Masud shah and Nasiruddin Muhammad were the successors.
1266 – 1287
An era of Balban
1) A strong and centralized government was established
2) He acted as a champion of Turkish Nobility
3) He broke the strength of Chahalgani to restore the powers of the Monarchy
4) He established Diwan-i-arz, military department towards a strong army
5) He adopted a policy of blood and iron to restore the law and order problems
6) He insisted on the ceremony of Sijada and Paibos
7) He took up the title Zil-i-illahi
1218 - 1227
1) The Mongol leader who prided in being called the Scourge of God
2) They attacked the Khwarizmi empire and sacked the flourishing cities
3) Delhi Sultanate became the only important Islam state of this period
4) Illtutmish, in 1221, refused an asylum request of Jallaudin, who was defeated by Changez Khan. Changez Khan did not cross River Indus, which saved the weak sultanate from loot and plunder.
The Khiljis (1290- 1320)
1290 – 1296
1) He checked the monopoly of Turkish nobility and followed a policy of tolerance
1296 – 1316
1) He separated religion from politics and proclaimed, ‘Kingship knows no kinship’
2) He followed an imperialist and annexation policy. He annexed Gujarat, Ranthambore, Malwa, Mewar etc
1) By series of 4 Ordinances, Allaudin took steps to avoid the problems caused by the nobles
2) He introduced the Dagh – branding of horse and Chehra – a descriptive roll of soldier’s system.
3) By setting up markets, Allauddin fixed the cost of all commodities
4) He constructed the Alai fort and Alai Darwaza – the entrance of Qutb Minar
5) He also built the palace of thousand pillars called Hazar Sutun
6) Amir Khusrau was the court poet of Allaudin
1316 – 1320
Ghazi Malik deposed Khusrau Khan in a rebellion.
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