Viral Diseases: Know Symptoms, Infection Site, Mode of Transmission

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Feb 5, 2022, 10:24

The general diseases humans and animals suffer from can be divided broadly into bacterial infections and viral diseases. As the name suggests, viral diseases are caused by microbes known as viruses and tend to be of a highly infectious nature.

What are the Most Common Ways in Which Viral Diseases Spread?

As said earlier, viral diseases are some of the most contagious diseases around. However, not all viral diseases spread the same way. Some of the most common ways in which viruses multiply and spread from person to person are - 

  • Breathing in contaminated airborne droplets.
  • Drinking liquids or eating food contaminated by viruses or used by a patient suffering from viral diseases.
  • Having a sexual relationship with a person suffering from sexually transmittable viral diseases.
  • Indirect transmission of the virus through ticks, mice, and mosquitoes. 
  • Coming in contact with body fluids of a virus-infected person or touching surfaces contaminated by the virus. 

A Comprehensive Viral Diseases List

Common cold and COVID-19 are two of the most prominent viral disease examples. Here's a comprehensive list of nine viral diseases that are most commonly seen in human beings- 

Sr. No


Infection Site

Mode of Transmission



Common Cold

Respiratory Tract


Nasal congestion, cough, sore throat, and headache



Salivary Glands

Droplets and Saliva

Parotoid glands enlargement



Respiratory Tract and Skin


Running nose, sore throat, cough, fever, and skin rashes


Viral Hepatitis


Blood transfusion and parenteral route

Jaundice, liver damage, nausea, yellow eyes, abdominal pain, and fever


Chicken Pox

Skin, Respiratory Tract, Nervous System

Direct contact and Droplets

Itchy skin, blisters, and mild fever



Spinal Cord, Brain, Intestine

Droplet transmitted through the oral and fecal route

Muscular stiffness, fever, paralysis, respiratory failure


Dengue Fever

Skin and Blood

Mosquito vector

Severe fever, muscle pain, and joint ache



Nervous System

Mosquito vector

Fever, joint swelling, muscle pain, and headache


Sars COV-2

Lower Respiratory Tract, Lungs

Direct Contact, Surface Contact

Fever, Malaise, Dry cough, Breathing trouble

Sars coV-2 or Coronavirus or COVID-19

Coronavirus is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus named SARS coV-2. The disease is spread by droplets passed on from the infectious person when they speak, sneeze, cough, or even breathe. The COVID-19 disease started in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and has engulfed the globe ever since in the form of a raging pandemic. 

The persons infected with coronavirus generally suffer from mild to moderate symptoms that can well be tackled at home under strict isolation. However, those who become seriously ill might require intensive care at the hospital, including an artificial respiratory support system. 

Ever since this viral disease was discovered, the WHO has been asking people to wear N95 or surgical masks outdoors, maintain a two-meter distance from others, and restrict outdoor movement as much as possible.

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FAQs about Viral Diseases

  • Give some examples of viral diseases.

Examples of viral diseases are common cold, dengue, COVID-19, and poliomyelitis. 

  • Give the name of a viral disease that has currently become a pandemic.

Coronavirus caused by the SARS CoV-2 virus has taken the form of a pandemic. 

  • How do viral diseases spread?

Viral diseases spread through numerous ways, including direct contact, droplets, transmission through mediums such as mosquitos, ticks, and mice, blood transfusion, and sexual contact.