Runtime Environments for GATE CS

By : Manglika Tripathi

Updated : Feb 26, 2021, 0:08

Runtime Environments provide all the necessary functionalities to computer programs at runtime. The allocation and deallocation of data objects during runtime is also managed by Runtime Environments. Runtime Environments provide support packages that depend on the syntax & semantics of the computer program to computer programs at runtime. Runtime Environments GATE questions are asked in the GATE CS exam. Runtime Environments for computer science questions are asked under the Compile Design section of the GATE CS exam. Read on to know more about Runtime Environments GATE syllabus.

Important Runtime Environments Topics for GATE CS



Symbol Table

A compiler creates a symbol table to track the scope of names in the source code. Every time a new name or information about any name is added in the source code, a symbol table is updated. Linear Lists & Hash Tables are the common mechanisms used by the compilers to create/update symbol tables.

Procedure Activation

The activation of any procedure is defined as Procedure Activation. The activation procedure starts with the execution of the respective procedure.

Activation Tree

The flow of control in various activations can be represented by an activation tree. Each node in an activation tree represents the activation of any procedure, while the root shows the activation of the source program. The control from the initiation of activation to its ending is explained via an activation tree.

Control Stack

A control stack demonstrates the flow of control in a computer program. It is made via the depth-first traversal of the activation tree. It is also used to track real-time procedure activations. At the initiation of any activation, an activation record is pushed in the control stack which is popped out after the activation ends.

Tips to Solve Runtime Environments Questions in GATE Exam

  • Practice Runtime Environments online quizzes.
  • Prepare all Runtime Environments topics for GATE CS, including the various methods & procedures.
  • Make sure to use the correct stack storage organisation while solving Runtime Environments MCQ questions.
  • Make sure you have a prerequisite about Intermediate Code Generation & Compilers for preparing Runtime Environments GATE questions.

Importance of Runtime Environments in GATE CS Exam

  • Runtime Environments syllabus for GATE will test the program compilation skills of GATE applicants.
  • Understanding Runtime Environments helps in minimising the runtime errors during code compilation.
  • You will have to solve Runtime Environments questions in a limited time in the GATE CS exam. It will test your speed of solving CS questions.
  • Understanding Runtime Environments also helps in identifying code errors and code control easily.

Most Recommended Books for Runtime Environments for GATE

One should have the complete Runtime Environments study material for GATE CS exam preparation. Some of the best Runtime Environments books for GATE exam preparation are as follows:

Book Name


Elements of Compiler Design

Alexander Meduna

Compiler Design

OG Kakde

Compile Design

Aho & Ull Man

Why prepare Runtime Environments from BYJU'S Exam Prep?

BYJU'S Exam Prep has more than 11 million registered students on its platform. It is a reliable online exam preparation platform for various competitive exams. You will find quality Runtime Environments notes for CS on BYJU'S Exam Prep. One can also view/download Runtime Environments notes for GATE PDFs or Runtime Environments GATE questions and answers PDFs from BYJU'S Exam Prep. Various online courses by expert faculties are also available on BYJU'S Exam Prep. You can opt for various Runtime Environments online tests available on BYJU'S Exam Prep to test your knowledge. Downloadable Runtime Environments MCQ PDFs are also available on BYJU'S Exam Prep for practice. Runtime Environments are an important concept of compiler design and GATE CS syllabus. You can practice via Runtime Environments quizzes available on BYJU'S Exam Prep.


Q. What is constant folding in Runtime Environments?

Constant Folding is identifying the common sub-expression in source code & replacing runtime computations with the compile-time computations.

Q. What is the use of Flow Graph in Runtime Environments?

Flow Graph shows the relationship between the basic blocks of a program and its successors. It can tell us about the flow of control among various blocks of a code. Flow Graph is a directed graph that is also used for loop optimization.

Q. What are the duties of a task storage manager?

A task storage manager allocates/deallocates storage space to various codes/programs. It also protects the storage space allocated to any particular program from interruption by other illegal programs.

Q. What is meant by a non-relocatable program?

Such a program that cannot be executed in any storage other than the allocated one is called a non-relocatable program. You can refer to Runtime Environments GATE notes available on BYJU'S Exam Prep to know more.

Q. What is meant by a self-relocating program?

A self-relocating program itself relocated its address portions. At runtime, a self-relocating program relocates its data section. This type of program does not contain debug information as it is evaluated at runtime by the program itself.