CAPF: Paramilitary forces of India

By Dhruv Kumar|Updated : June 7th, 2021

 Central Paramilitary Forces

  1. Border Security Force (BSF)
  2. Assam Rifles (AR)
  3. Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
  4. Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
  5. Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
  6. National Security Guard (NSG)
  7. Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

Border Security Force (BSF)

Motto: “जीवन पर्यन्त कर्तव्य” (Duty Unto Death)

  • It is a Union Government agency Administered by Ministry of Home Affairs
  • BSF is known as the First Line of Defence of Indian Territories. Currently, it stands as the world's most extensive border guarding force
  • BSF came into existence in the wake of the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war. It is responsible for guarding India's land border during peacetime and preventing transnational crime at the same; it has various active roles during an outbreak of war.
  • BSF is headed by an officer from the Indian Police Service(IPS).
  • It strong force of around 2.4 lakh personnel.
  • It also has an expanding air wing, marine wing, an artillery regiment, and commando units.

Assam Rifles (AR)

Motto: “Sentinels of the North East”

  • Since 2002 it has been guarding the Indo-Mayanmar border as per the government policy "one border one force.
  • Assam Rifles established in 1835, it operates under the control of Indian Army and is responsible for counter-insurgency and border security operations, work in case of any emergency, Natural calamity and provide medical assistance and education in remote areas.
  • It is the oldest of all paramilitary forces. 
  • There are currently 46 battalions of Assam Rifles under the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

Motto: Protection and Security

  • CISF was established in 1969.
  • CISF is the largest industrial security force in the world and has 165,000 personnel.
  • CISF's job is providing security to industrial units, government infrastructure projects and facilities and establishments located all over IndiaPublic Sector Undertakings (PSUs). It also provides protection to the corporate sector like Bengaluru campus of Infosys and Jamnagar oil Refinery of Reliance.
  • CISF also has a Fire Wing which helps during fire accidents in Industries where CISF is on guard
  • Currently, CISF provides security cover to over 300 industrial units.

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

Motto: "सेवा और निष्ठा "Service and Loyalty

  • Before Independence, it was known as Crown Representative's Police. But After the Independence, it became the Central Reserve Police Force on the enactment of the CRPF Act on 28 December 1949.

Roles and responsibilities 

  • It looks after the matters related to the internal security of  India.
  • Countering Naxal operations, assisting the State and Union Territories in police operations to maintain law and order  and helping with the UN peacekeeping missions
  • The CRPF guarded the India-Pakistan Border until 1965, after which it was replaced by BSF.

Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)

Motto: "Shaurya-Dridhata-Karma Nishtha" (Valour – Determination – Devotion to Duty)

  • It was established after the 1962 Indo-China war, under the CRPF Act.
  • It vigils the northern borders, detects and prevents every border violations and helps the locals feel secure.
  • The force also keeps a check on illegal immigration and trans-border smuggling. They guard the Indo-Tiber border and the mountainous regions of the Indo-China border.
  • The ITBP is also trained in disaster management and has been deployed in UN peacekeeping missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Haiti, Western Sahara, Sudan, and Afghanistan.

National Security Guard (NSG)

The motto "सर्वत्र सर्वोत्तम सुरक्षा "Omnipresent, omnipotent security

  • It was established in 1986.
  • NSG was established after the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Operation Blue Star.
  • NSG was raised to combat terrorist activities and to ensure the states do not witness any internal disturbances.
  • They are often referred to as Black Cats because of their uniform, which consists of a black dress and black cat insignia.

Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

Motto: Service, Security and Brotherhood

  • It was established in 1963. Prior to 2001, the force was known as the Special Service Bureau (SSB). As of 2020, it has 94,261 active personnel in 73 battalions and strength of 98,965 is sanctioned.
  • Roles and Responsibilities
  • It guards the Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan borders.

SSB job is to control anti-national activities and inculcate feelings of national belonging in the border population among others.

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