CAPF Essay Notes: Environmental Pollution

By Naveen Singh|Updated : June 10th, 2020

Environmental Pollution has emerged as one of the most serious global challenges. It has existed from centuries but only started to be significant following the industrial revolution in the 19th century. Pollution occurs when natural environment fails to destroy an element without damaging itself. Mostly Pollution is created because of anthropogenic activities, and its destruction process could take a hundred to thousands of years. In other words, Pollution came into existence when nature did not know how to decompose an element and came into existence in an unnatural way.

Pollution has become a severe problem for the entire planet, as it has a negative impact on mother earth. It is polluting the elements necessary for the existence of life, such as water and air. In this article, we will cover the reason for Pollution, its impacts and way forward.

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Causes of Environmental Pollution

Industries: Industries are a major source of environmental pollution. After the industrial revolution in the 19th century. The usage of machines based on fossil fuel increased significantly to increase production. But on the other hand, it is the primary reason for air, soil and water contamination. Industrial waste pollutes the air, the soil, or nearby water sources, eventually ending up in the sea, leading to loss of flora and fauna.


Transportation: After the invention of modern machines, men abandoned animal power to travel. Similarly, like industries, these machines (cars, trains, Airplanes, etc.) also run on fossil fuels. On one side, modern machines have reduced travel time for humans, increased connectivity; on the other hand, they are responsible for the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The number of vehicles is increasing day by day, which is further increasing the amount of Pollution in the environment.


Agriculture Activities: Agriculture is mainly responsible for the contamination of soil and water. The increased usage of Chemicals and Pesticides in agricultural land has significantly increased productivity, but the discharge of water from agriculture fields to lakes and rivers is a major reason for environmental Pollution. Chemical fertilizers mixed in the water when they reach the lake cause algae blooming (eutrophication) is a danger to other species living under that water body. The pesticides that are used to keep diseases and threatening animals away from the crops, but excessive usage of it somehow poses a danger to other species and humans as well. Long term pesticide exposure may cause Parkinson’s disease; asthma; depression and anxiety; attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and cancer, including leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.


Residences: Residential areas are also responsible for environmental Pollution. Initially, to develop homes natural environment is destroyed. Wildlife and plants are removed from their area for the construction of new buildings. During the construction work, a lot of Pollution is generated. And when people settle, they harm the environment by generating waste and Pollution for their luxurious life.


Effects of Environmental Pollution

Impact on Humans: The effect of environmental pollution on humans are mainly physical, but can also turn into neuro-affections in the long term. The disease caused by Pollution includes respiratory diseases in the form of allergies, asthma, irritation of eyes, etc. On the other hand, environmental Pollution has proved to be a major reason for the development of cancer. This happens when the pollutant (residue of pesticide) somehow to reach inside our body either through food or water. Other diseases are also caused by Pollution, dangerous for the health of a person.

Effects on Animals: Environmental Pollution mainly affects animals by causing harm to their environment, making it difficult to live in. Acid rains make the water of rivers and seas toxic for organisms like fishes and organisms living under these bodies. 


Effects on Plants: As for plants, they are destroyed by acid rains as well as ozone produced by pollutants in lower atmosphere block the plant respiration, and harmful pollutants can be absorbed from the water and soil.


As most of the Pollution we see in the environment is the result of anthropogenic activities. Humans are responsible for environmental Pollution. It exists because of never-ending demand and overexploitation of natural resources. There is a need for sustainable development. As well as environmental pollution is not a problem of one country but change for the entire human race. There is a need for nations to come and act together, as many attempts like UNFCCC, etc. are not able to achieve their targets.

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