UNESCO world heritage sites in India
World Heritage Sites
- These Sites are the places which have been officially recognized by a specialized agency of the UN (United Nations), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) based on their natural, cultural, historical, and scientific importance.
UNESCO is a specialized agency of the UN, whose objective is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms. Its headquarter is in Paris, France.
- The list of World Heritage sites is maintained by World Heritage Programme which is administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.
UNESCO World Heritage Committee-
It is composed of 21 UNESCO member states which are elected by the UN General Assembly.
- These are areas of importance of cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, 1972.
- Italy has the highest numbers of World Heritage Sites in the world.
Criteria for Selection of World Heritage Sites
- These criteria are explained in the World Heritage Convention, 1972.
- These criteria are regularly revised by the World Heritage Committee to reflect the evolution of the World Heritage concept itself.
- Before the revised Operational Guidelines, World Heritage sites were selected based on six cultural and four natural criteria.
- With the adoption of the revised Operational Guidelines, only one set of ten criteria.
Tentative lists of Heritage Sites
- All countries are required to submit their Tentative Lists of places which they consider to be a cultural or natural heritage of outstanding universal value and therefore suitable for inscription on the World Heritage List.
- Tentative Lists is not considered exhaustive and need to submit one year prior to the submission of any nomination.
- Countries are required to re-examine and re-submit their Tentative List at least every ten years.
- If any site is listed in World Heritage Sites, then it must be removed from the tentative list.
World Heritage Sites in India
- There are 38 (30 Cultural, 7 Natural and 1 Mixed) World Heritage Sites in India after the inclusion of Wall City of Jaipur in July 2019.
- First time from India two sites Agra fort and Ajanta Caves were included in World Heritage Sites in 1983.
- In 2016, the following three sites have been listed in World Heritage Sites-
(i) Nalanda Mahavihara University, Bihar
(ii) Capitol Building Complex– Chandigarh
(iii) Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim
- In July 2017, Ahmedabad became India’s first city to be listed in World Heritage Sites.
- In July 2018, Victorian and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai listed as 37th World Heritage Sites from India.
- In July 2019, Walled City of Jaipur listed as 38th World Heritage Sites from India.
- Only one mixed-criteria site in India is Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim.
- The Ministry of Culture recommends one property every year for nomination to UNESCO.
Cultural Heritage sites in India
|1||Agra Fort (1983)||Uttar Pradesh|
|2||Ajanta Caves (1983)||Maharashtra|
|3||Ellora Caves (1983)||Maharashtra|
|4||Taj Mahal (1983)||Uttar Pradesh|
|5||Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (1984)||Tamil Nadu|
|6||Sun Temple, Konarak (1984)||Odisha|
|7||Churches and Convents of Goa (1986)||Goa|
|8||Fatehpur Sikri (1986)||Uttar Pradesh|
|9||Group of Monuments at Hampi (1986)||Karnataka|
|10||Khajuraho, Group of Temples (1986)||Madhya Pradesh|
|11||Elephanta Caves ( 1987)||Maharashtra|
|12||Great Living Chola Temples at Thanjavur, Gangaikondacholapuram and Darasuram (1987 & 2004)||Tamil Nadu|
|13||Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (1987)||Karnataka|
|14||Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989)||Madhya Pradesh|
|15||Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi (1993)||Delhi|
|16||Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993)||Delhi|
|17||Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003)||Madhya Pradesh|
|18||Champaner-Pavagarh Archaeological Park (2004)||Gujarat|
|19||Red Fort Complex, Delhi (2007)||Delhi|
|20||Hill Forts of Rajasthan (Chittaurgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer and Ranthambhore, Amber and Gagron Forts) (2013) (Amber and Gagron Forts are under protection of Rajasthan State Archaeology and Museums)||Rajasthan Rajasthan|
|21||Rani-ki-Vav (The Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan (2014)||Gujarat|
|22||Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) at Nalanda (2016)||a state in eastern India|
|23||Mountain Railways of India ( Darjeeling,1999), Nilgiri (2005), Kalka- Shimla(2008)||West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh|
|24||Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) (2004)||Maharashtra|
|25||Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, (2002)||a state in eastern India|
|26||The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (2010)||Rajasthan Rajasthan|
|27||The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement (2016)||Chandigarh|
|28||Historic City of Ahmedabad (2017)||Gujarat|
|29||Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai (2018)||Maharashtra|
|30||Jaipur City, Rajasthan (2019)||Rajasthan|
Natural Heritage sites in India-
|1||Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area (2014)||Himachal Pradesh|
|2||Kaziranga National Park (1985)||Assam|
|3||Keoladeo National Park (1985)||Rajasthan|
|4||Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985)||Assam|
|5||Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Park (1988,2005)||Uttarakhand|
|6||Sundarbans National Park (1987)||West Bengal|
|7||Western Ghats (2012)||Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra|
Mixed Heritage site in India-
Khangchendzonga National Park
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