Art & Culture of Uttar Pradesh for UP State Exam[Free PDF]

By Trupti Thool|Updated : July 7th, 2022

Hello Aspirants,

In this UP Special article, you will find comprehensive notes for the Art and Culture of Uttar Pradesh. These notes are an indispensable part of competitive exam preparation in UP. 

Art and Culture Notes of Uttar Pradesh

Classical singing/playing

  • भरतमुनि का नाट्यशास्त्र composed in the ancient period is the 'Bible of the musicians’ of North India.
  • Mahaprabhu Vallabhacharya established a पुष्टि संप्रदाय in Mathura-Vrindavan.
  • Vitthal Nath established Krishnaleela Gaan Panth (कृष्णलीला गान संप्रदाय)
  • In Ashtachhap poets were - Surdas, Nand Das, Parmanand das, Kumbhnandas, Chaturbuja das, Chhit Swami, Govind Swami, and Krishnadas.
  • Swami Haridas, the propagater of the Sakhi Panth, composed 'Shrikalimal' and 'Ashtashash'.
  • Swami Haridas had trained Tansen on Deepak Raag, Baiju Bawra on Megh Raag, and Gopal Nayak on Maalakauns Raag.
  • Amir Khusro had mixed famous Iranian music raags in Indian Raag.
  • Modu Khan and Bakshur Khan propagated the Lucknow Gharana of Tabla.
  • Modu Khan's disciple Pt. Ramsahay  propagated the Banaras VaJ Gharana.
  • The Agra Gharana is also called the Kawwal bachcha Gharana.
  • Singer Ustad Fayaz Khan belongs to Agra Gharana.
  • Akbar's court singer Sujhan Khan is said to be the originator of the Agra Gharana.
  • Bahram Khan of Saharanpur Gharana was given the title of Pandit.

Classical dance

  • Sitara Devi and Alkhananda Devi of Varanasi received fame in the field of Kathak dance.
  • Following are the famous Uttar Pradesh players of respective instruments Violin playing: Mrs. N. Rajam; Shehnai Vadan: Ustad Bismillah Khan; Sitar Vadan: Pt-Ravi Shankar, Rajbhan Singh, Ustad Mushtaq Ali Khan and in Dance: Uday Shankar and Gopi Krishna.
  • Kathak style of dance originated in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Bindaddin, Shambhu Maharaj, Lachhu Maharaj, and Birju Maharaj were famous practitioners Kathak.

Folk dance

  • 'Charakula' is a pitcher dance which is the folk dance of Brajbhoomi.
  • 'Pai Danda' dance is performed by Aheers of Bundelkhand.
  • 'Rai Nritya' is a peacock dance of the women of Bundelkhand. It is performed on the occasion of Shrikrishna Janmashtami.
  • 'Shara Dance' is popular in the districts of Hamirpur, Jhansi, and Lalitpur in the Bundelkhand region. This dance is done by the young boys and girls of the farming community in the rainy season. In this dance, worship, and blessings of Vedic deity Indra is sought for the successful harvesting of the crop
  • Deepawali dance' is done by Bundelkhandi Aheers, on the occasion of Deepawali, with lightened lamps held on the head.
  • 'Kartik song dance' is prevalent in the Bundelkhand region of the state. Kartik song is a description of the relationship between Krishna and Gopis.
  • 'Dhobiya Raga' is performed by the Dhobi castes of the state.
  • The dance performed on the occasion of auspicious events by kahar is called 'Natwari Nritya'.
  • 'Chaurasia Dance' is a dance performed by Kahars in the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
  • Karma dance is a dance jointly organized by women and men of Coal tribes in Mirzapur and Sonbhadra districts of Uttar Pradesh.

Folk drama

  • The most popular folk drama dance in Uttar Pradesh is Nautanki.
  • Ramleela Nautanki is organized in the month of September / October during Navratri. Ramleela is sequential incidents portrayal of the life of Lord Rama.

Folk song

  • Biraha, Chaitya, Bhola, Kajree, Rasia, Aallah, Puran Bhagat and Bhartrihari are the main folk songs of Uttar Pradesh.
  • Ragini, Dhola, Swang are the main folk songs of western Uttar Pradesh.
  • Lavani, Baharatbile is the main folk song in the Rubelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh.

Important Fairs & Festivals

  • Taj Mahotsav is organized in Agra.
  • ''Salahakul Utsav ', a symbol of Hindu-Muslim unity, is organized in Agra.
  • In Uttar Pradesh, on the occasion of the Holi festival, 'Lattathmar Holi' is organized in the barasana.
  • In Uttar Pradesh, the world's largest fair (Kumbh Mela) is organized in Allahabad.
  • 'Kumbh Mela ' is organized every 12 years and Ardha Kumbh Mela is organized in the intervals of every 6 years.
  • Dadri's Animal Fair is organized on Kartik Purnima, in Ballia.
  • Magh Mela is organized every year in Allahabad.
  • Haridas Jayanti Festival and Dhrupad Mela are held annually in Bhadrapad Shukla paksha in Mathura, in which the best musicians participate.

Folk language

  • The most spoken regional language/Boli in Uttar Pradesh is Bhojpuri.
  • Khadi language/Boli is spoken in areas like East Delhi, Meerut, Bagpat, Mujjafar Nagar, Ghaziabad, Gautam Buddha Nagar, etc.
  • Awadhi language/Boli is spoken in areas like Faizabad, Gonda, Shravasti, Lucknow, Amethi, Allahabad etc. Mathura, Aligarh, Agra, Firozabad, Bareilly, etc. are the area of Braj language/Boli.
  • Kannauji language/Boli is spoken in Kannauj, Etawah, Auraya, Kanpur, etc. Kannauj language and Braj languages share many similarities.
  • Bundeli language/ boli is spoken in Jhansi, Lalitpur, Hamirpur, Chitrakoot, etc.
  • Bagheli is the least spoken language/ boli in Uttar Pradesh.  

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