The technology used to move and operate outside the Earth's atmosphere for space exploration and spacecraft is known as Space Technology. Satellites, spacecraft, orbital rockets and space stations, space engines, space communications, and many other technologies belong to this area of technological advancement.
Rapid progress has been made in this area, with remarkable results for all humankind, including landings on the moon. Recent technologies born or promoted by space-related ventures are being used for economically significant activities.
Global Space Technology Milestones
The most active topic covering the section on current issues in science and technology is Space Technology. The era of space flight began with the launch of the Sputnik satellite in 1957, and the technology has evolved since then.
Objectives of Space Technology
Hundreds of satellite data applications have been developed, including everyday devices, remote sensing, weather forecasting, satellite television, and satellite navigation systems. These missions provide humanity with powerful and exciting images, including photographs such as Blue Marble. It will be a globally recognized symbol of our Mother Earth.
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Key Challenges in Space Technology
Space Technology cannot be concluded within national boundaries and can affect planetary assets or territories. Therefore, the domestic regulations must cater to the international regulatory framework considering rules and regulations at the international level to avoid challenges like:
- Propulsion Systems and Technical challenges
- Protection of Humans
- Earth Environment
- Low-Cost Space Technologies
- Large Space Structures
- In-Orbit Servicing and Active Debris Removal
Indian Space Program Milestones
- In 1962, the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established by the Ministry of Nuclear Energy. Construction of the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launch Station (TERLS) has begun.
- On November 21, 1963, the first rocket was launched from TERLS.
- In 1967, the Satellite Communications Earth Station was established in Ahmedabad.
- ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) was established on August 15, 1969, under the Ministry of Nuclear Energy.
- On June 1, 1972, the Space Commission and the Space Agency were formed.
- India's first ISRO satellite, Aryabhata, was launched on April 19, 1975.
- On June 7, 1979, an experimental satellite called Bhaskara I was launched for earth observation.
- On March 17, 1988, the first operational Indian remote sensing satellite, IRS1A, was launched.
- On May 26, 1999, the Indian remote sensing satellite IRSP4 (OCEANSAT) was launched by a polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLVC2) from Sriharikota, along with DLRTUBSAT in Germany and KITSAT3 in South Korea.
- On September 12, 2002, PSLVC4 (Pole Satellite Launch Rocket) successfully launched the KALPANA1 satellite from Sriharikota.
- ISRO's PSLVC7 (Pole Satellite Launch Rocket) launched four satellites on January 10, 2007. The Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE1) and CARTOSAT2 in India, PEHUENSAT1 in Argentina, and LAPANTUBSAT in Indonesia.
- On October 22, 2008, PSLVC11 was released by Chandrayaan 1 Sriharikota.
- India launched the EOS01 Earth Observation Satellite on November 7, 2020, along with nine international satellites from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota.
- On January 4, 2021, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi opened the 2021 National Metrology Conclave.
To conclude, Space Technology will always be an important aspect of innovation and invention. With the speed with which technology is progressing, Space Technology will only boom in the coming years.
FAQs on Space Technology
Q.1. What is an orbit in Space Technology?
According to celestial mechanics, an orbit is a curved path or orbit of an object. For example, the orbits of planets around the stars and the orbits of natural satellites such as the moon around the earth. When an artificial satellite orbits an object or position in space such as the moon, asteroids, or planets, it follows a specific orbit in Space Technology.
Q.2. What kinds of artificial satellites are there as described by Space Technology?
There are various types of artificial satellites. Some important types of satellites are biosatellites, communications, navigation, earth observation, space stations, killer, manned spacecraft, solar power, tethers, weather, miniaturization, etc, these kinds of artificial satellites are there as described by Space Technology.
Q.3. What is Lagrange's Point under Space Technology?
Lagrange’s point under Space Technology refers to the location in space where the gravity of the two-body system forms an area of enhanced repulsion and attraction. The earth and the sun are examples.
Q.4. What is CRISPRCas9 in Space Technology?
Under Space Technology CRISPR – Cas9 is a unique Space Technology that allows geneticists and medical researchers to edit parts of the genome. Deleting, adding, or modifying the section of DNA, itis currently the simplest, most versatile, and most accurate method of genetic engineering, creating a sensation in the scientific world.
Q.5. What are the 7 mega missions launched by ISRO toward Space Technology?
Space Technology under ISRO has launched the following missions -
- XPoSat (to study cosmic radiation in 2020)
- Aditya-L1(to the Sun in 2021)
Undefined Missions -
- Mangalyaan-2 (or Mars Orbiter Mission-2 in 2022)
- Lunar Polar Exploration (or Chandrayaan-3 in 2024)
- Venus mission (in 2023)
- Exoworlds (exploration outside the solar system in 2028).