Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC]

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 25, 2022, 9:02

Global warming is a pressing environmental problem that, if not controlled in the coming years, can lead to life-threatening consequences.

Therefore, the Paris Deal introduced the concept of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC] to tame global warming.

INDCs are the principal way for governments to communicate to the rest of the world the steps they intend to take in their own country to mitigate climate change. It demonstrates the desire of each nation to reduce emissions while taking into consideration its particular circumstances and resources.

The Paris Deal and the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC]

Countries across the world signed a historic climate agreement in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) “Conference of the Parties” (COP21) in Paris in 2015. They publicly disclosed their anticipated post-2020 climate policies under the new international agreement, called the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC].

The main goal of this agreement is to keep the global temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Therefore, to make it possible, all nations, including developed and developing countries, shall reduce their overall greenhouse gas emissions.

This agreement is considered an extension of the Kyoto Protocol (1997), which required only developed countries to reduce emissions.

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC] - Current Situation

China is the nation that currently emits the most greenhouse gases, i.e., about 9.9 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, equalling 27% of the global total. The carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere is currently at a record high of more than 415 ppm.

According to IPCC estimates, the world will reach the global warming limit by 2030. It will entail several consequences, including extreme climatic changes, a drastic decline in soil fertility, and many more.

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Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC] of India

India aims to reduce its emission intensity by 35% by 2030 vis-a-vis 2005 levels. India plans to develop a carbon sink in the form of a forest area, which has the potential to absorb up to 3 billion tonnes of Carbon Dioxide by 2030.

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC] of India also focuses on the construction sector of developing areas. The government of India implemented various initiatives like GRIHA to facilitate green construction activities. And this is being planned by using several funds from around the world as the Green Climate Fund.

A part of the INDC requires reducing the use of fossil fuels in the industrial sector and replacing them with electrical power supplies. Moreover, the Bharat stage emission restrictions control the output of air pollutants from automotive engines.

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Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC] Goals

According to a study conducted by academicians at the Indian Institute of Science and other collaborators, natural resource management operations under the MGNREGA can collect 249 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2030.

The 2022-23 budget focuses on green energy to achieve INDC goals as follows:

  • It allocated Rs. 6,900 crores to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
  • An additional grant of Rs. 19,500 crores to support solar module manufacturing.
  • Electric car battery changeover strategy, as well as interoperability standards, would be established.
  • Enhance the usage of public transportation in metropolitan regions.
  • The Ministry of Atomic Energy has been given a budget of 86,200 crores this year in what looks to be an effort to cut carbon emissions.

The Paris Accord is a watershed point in the global climate change process. It is the first legally binding pact that brings all nations together to fight against climate change. The climate actions communicated in the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions will determine whether the world achieves the long term goals of the Paris Agreement.

It includes keeping global average temperature increases well below 2°C, pursuing efforts to limit increases to 1.5°C, and achieving net-zero emissions in the second half of this century.

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FAQs on Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC]

Q1. Do the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC] include harmful liquid and solid wastes?

No. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC] only focus on decreasing global warming by controlling and restricting excessive use and release of greenhouse gases.

Q2. What was the drawback of the Kyoto Protocol based on the concept of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC]?

The drawback of the Kyoto Protocol based on the concept of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC] was that it failed to recognise the role of developing countries in emitting harmful gases as the process of development requires industrial activities.

Q3. Which country should be considered the “best” based on Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC]?

The island country Nauru should be considered the best based on Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC], as it is the country emitting the least amount of greenhouse gases in the world.

Q4. What body governs the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC]?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is the body that governs Intended Nationally Determined Contributions [INDC].