Humayun [1530 - 1556]

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Mar 8, 2023, 17:40

Humayun was the 2nd Mughal emperor who ruled the Dynasty of North India from the 16th to 19th century. He is the great-grandfather to Shah Jahan, the creator of the Taj Mahal.

He was the heir to a brand new and especially unstable empire and fought two revolts, losing his crown. He left his son with a greater Empire than what he had received from Afghanistan through Bengal.

History of Humayun

Humayun was born on the 17th March 1508 in Kabul, when Babur was trying to expand his Empire. He accompanied him on his travels throughout his youth, and by the age of 18, he was with him in the war at Panipat (1526), which was one of the battles that established the Mughal Empire.

He was later a part of the defeat from Agra and was sent to settle this valley, the Ganges, which lies in the eastern part of the Empire.

In 1528, he was granted the governorship of Badakhshan, a region located between South Tajikistan and North Afghanistan. Badakhshan was somewhat like the first territory that was part of the Empire.

When Humayun became the king of the Mughal Empire, many of his brothers rebelled against the king. Khalil Mirza, the third brother, stood with Humayun; however, he was killed.

Life of Humayun

The Emperor began the construction of a tomb for his brother of his in 1538. However, it was not completed when Humayun became a victim of forced escape to Persia. Sher Shah destroyed the tomb, and no work was carried out after Humayun's reconstruction.

During his reign, Humayun had two main rivals: Sultan Bahadur in the southwest and Sher Shah Suri settled on the river Ganges in Bihar.

Humayun's first mission was to take on Sher Shah Suri. However, he was forced to stop this campaign halfway and focus on Gujarat, where the threat from Ahmed Shah had to be confronted. Humayun won the war by annexing Gujarat, Malwa, Champaner and the Mandu fort.

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In the initial five years of Humayun's rule, Bahadur and Sher Khan extended their rule, even though Sultan Bahadur was subject to pressure from the east due to sporadic disputes between the Portuguese.

Although the Mughals could acquire firearms through the Ottoman Empire, Bahadur's Gujarat acquired them by signing several contracts made in conjunction with the Portuguese, which allowed the Portuguese to establish a strategically important presence in the northwestern region of India.

In 1535, Humayun was alerted that Bahadur, Sultan of Gujarat, had planned an attack on the Mughal areas with Portuguese assistance. Humayun assembled an army and attacked Bahadur.

Within a few months, he took over Forts Mandu and Champaner. Instead of advancing his offensive, Humayun ceased the campaign and then consolidated the territory he had conquered. Sultan Bahadur, meanwhile, escaped and sought refuge with those the Portuguese.

Legacy of Humayun

The travels of Humayun and his father Babur are identical; both acquired territory and expanded it through military conquests and were then exiled. They conquered their territory using force and then passed away before they could organize the Empire.

Emperor Akbar, the son of Humayun, was the heir to a diverse empire that was newly destroyed and unstable. He also inherited a culture of conquering, nomadic life and a determination to protect the Empire at any cost.

Linguistically, he maintained his use of Chaghatai, a language from Turkish that was strongly orientated in the period that of his dad and grandfather.

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FAQs on Humayun

Q1. What is Humayun renowned for?

Humayun is the 2nd Mughal ruler of the territories of the Indian subcontinent that included present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and portions north of India. The Mughal emperor was the son of Babur and the successor to Babur who founded the Mughal dynasty. He was the Mughal Emperor when he was 23 years old.

Q2. How long Humayun reigned in India?

A son, and the successor to Babur who established the Mughal dynasty. Humayun reigned from 1530 until 1540, and from 1555 until 1556.

Q3. What's the significance of the Humayun's rule?

Humayun was successful in when he annexed Gujarat, Malwa, Champaner and the fortification in Mandu. In the initial five years of Humayun's rule, Bahadur and Sher Khan extended their rule, even though Sultan Bahadur was under pressure in the east due to sporadic wars between the Portuguese.

Q4. Who was the architect of the Humayun's Tomb In Delhi?

Humayun's Tomb was erected in the 1560s under the support of Humayun's son, who was the legendary Emperor Akbar. Persian, as well as Indian craftsmen, we're able to collaborate to construct the garden tomb that was more impressive than any tomb that was built prior to the Islamic world.