Buxa Tiger Reserve: Location, History, Significance

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Dec 14, 2022, 12:18

Buxa Tiger Reserve is located in the hilly plains of West Bengal and is home to hundreds of bird species and magnificent mammals such as the Indian leopard, Clouded leopard, Asian Golden Cat, etc. Covering over 760 square kilometres in total, Buxa is a natural sanctuary for many exclusive tiger and leopard species.

Starting from the Gangetic plains (elevation of 60 m), the Buxa Tiger Reserve reaches the Himalayan foothills at 1750 metres. We have shared further information about the history and significance of Buxa here.

Buxa Tiger Reserve - Overview

Situated in the Alipurduar district of West Bengal, with its northern boundary running along the Indo-Bhutan border, the Buxa Tiger Reserve houses many unique mammal and bird species. This national park and tiger reserve has an extensive biodiversity consisting of 100 species of grass, 450 species of trees, 10 species of bamboo, and 130 species of aquatic flora.

The Buxa Tiger Reserve is also home to several endangered species such as the Indian Leopard, white-rumped vulture, reticulated python, great hornbill, etc. We have shared an overview of Buxa in the table shared below -


Buxa Tiger Reserve


West Bengal, India

Governed By

Ministry of Environment Forests and Climate Change, Government of India




760 square kilometers

Known For

Asian Golden Cat, other mammals and birds

Buxa Tiger Reserve or Buxa National Park - History

Buxa Tiger Reserve has an interesting history. Originally belonging to the King of Bhutan, the Buxa fort was notorious as a cellular jail during British rule. However, during the Chinese encroachment on Tibet, it served as a refuge centre for hundreds of Tibetan monks who fled from the Drepung monastery. At present, the fort is an important tourist site and acts as a viewpoint to grab a favourable snap of the entire Buxa Tiger Reserve.

Buxa Tiger Reserve was the 15th Tiger Reserve in India and the 2nd in West Bengal after the Sunderbans. With nearly 80% of the entire tiger population found in India, recent surveys have confirmed the doubling of the tiger population. Its convenient location paved a natural corridor for the tiger movement from Bhutan to Brahmaputra valley (Manas Tiger Reserve) to Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary.

Buxa is a remote hamlet of Alipurduar, and it attracts countless trekkers, wildlife lovers, and naturalists every year. The Buxa Tiger Reserve also houses the Sambar deer, Asian elephant, Indian leopard, Gaur and the clouded leopard.

Buxa Tiger Reserve - Significance

Nesting in the bosom of the Himalayan foothills, the Buxa is a tiger reserve in West Bengal that rests between the Sinchula Hills, with plenty of rivers flowing over it. This location has the rare combination of hills, rivers and forests mutually overlapping, a leading factor for possessing many species, including endemic varieties. It makes Buxa ideal for cultivating tea with Bharnabari, Beech and Dalsingpara tea estates nearby.

The Buxa Tiger Reserve creates a unique ecosystem comprising rivers flowing down from Bhutan. Thanks to its location over the Jalpaiguri district, it's a crucial buffer for free tiger movement, vital for enhancing the big cat count. It is also a critical conservation site rated as IUCN category 2, making it a National Park. Here is why Buxa Tiger Reserve is considered so significant -

  • It has extensive flora and fauna.
  • It is an important site for tea cultivation.
  • Buxa is home to hundreds of bird species and mammals.

Buxa Tiger Reserve - Flora and Fauna

Buxa Tiger Reserve lies south of the Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary (Bhutan) and west of the Manas National Park of Assam. It's connected to the Jaldapara National Park through the Chilapata Forests along the southwest. These five protected biospheres make for the natural corridor for Asian elephants, which roam around Assam to Bhutan and West Bengal.

Buxa is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna, some of which are listed below

  • 450 tree species
  • 9 cane species
  • 250 varieties of shrubs
  • 10 bamboo species
  • 150 unique orchid species
  • 284 bird species (containing Amur falcon, Malayan night heron, stripe-breasted woodpecker)
  • 73 species of mammals (Chital deer, wild boar, Asiatic golden cats, hog deer)
  • Great hornbill, multiple species of vultures, black stork and Eurasian teal

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FAQs on Buxa Tiger Reserve

Q.1. Where is the Buxa Tiger Reserve located?

Buxa Tiger Reserve is located in Alipurduar district, West Bengal. This tiger reserve was established in 1983 by the Government of India and is managed by the Ministry of Environment Forests and Climate Change.

Q.2. What is the Buxa Tiger Reserve famous for?

Buxa Tiger Reserve is famous for the vast biodiversity that it houses. Buxa houses hundreds of bird species, mammals, and fauna. It is especially known for housing endangered animal species such as Indian Leopard, white-rumped vulture, reticulated python, and great hornbill.

Q.3. What is the best time to visit the Buxa Tiger Reserve?

You can visit the Buxa Tiger Reserve anytime around the year except during monsoons. The safari stays closed between June-September for bad roads and unpleasant weather. Buxa Tiger Reserve is the perfect place if you are a nature enthusiast who wants a laid-back vacation.

Q.4. When was the Buxa Tiger Reserve established?

The Buxa Tiger Reserve was established in 1983 by the Ministry of Environment Forests and Climate Change, Government of India. Buxa Tiger Reserve is the 15th tiger reserve in India and is home to hundreds of unique mammals, plant species, and more.

Q.5. Buxa Tiger Reserve is in which district?

Buxa Tiger Reserve is located in the Alipurduar district in West Bengal. Buxa is a significant tiger reserve and national park, encompassing diverse forest types, with many rivers flowing through the reserve.