Study Notes for UPSC/PCS: Mughal Empire Part-3
Jahangir (1605 - 1627)
- Jahangir came to the throne in 1605. He issued 12 ordinances. He established Zanjir-il-Adal – Chain of Justice in Agra Fort and was known for his strict administration of Justice.
- He married Mehrunnisa, an Afghan widow in 1611 and Later he gave her the titles Noor Mahal (light of the palace), Noor Jahan (light of the world) and Padshah Begum.
- In 1606 Jahangir executed fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjun Dev because he helped Jahangir’s son Prince Khusru to rebel against him.
- In 1609, Jahangir received William Hawkins, an envoy of King James I of England, who reached India to obtain trade concession.
- In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe reached the court of Jahangir as the first ambassador of James I of England in the court of Jahangir. As a result of his efforts, first English factory was established at Surat in Gujarat.
- Period of Jahangir is considered as the Golden Age of Mughal Painting. Jahangir himself was a painter. Ustad Mansur and Abul Hassan and Bishan das were famous painters in the court of Jahangir.
- Anarkali was Jahangir's lover. Mughal-i-Azam directed by K. Asif is a famous film which tells the love story of Jahangir and Anarkali.
- Jahangir wrote his autobiography Tuzukh-i-Jahangiri in Persian language.
- Jahangir died in 1627 and was cremated at Shahdara in Lahore.
- Jahangir built Shalimar and Nishant Gardens in Srinagar.
- He completed the tomb of Akbar at Sikandara
- Jahangir introduced the vigorous use of Marble instead of red sandstone and use of Pietradura for decorative purposes. Nurjahan built Itimad-ud-daula/Mirza Ghiyas Beg’s Marble tomb at Agra
- He built Moti Masjid at Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara
Shah Jahan (1628 - 1658)
- Shah Jahan was born on 5th January 1592 at Lahore. His childhood name was Khurram. He ascended the throne in 1628.
- He married Arjumand Benu Begum, daughter of Asaf Khan, brother of Noor Jahan. She later came to be known as Mumtaz Mahal which means beloved of the Palace.
- Shahjahan destroyed the Portuguese settlements at Hoogly in 1631-32.
- The Gateway of Red Fort is the Lahore Gate. It is here at the Lahore Gate that the Prime Minister of India hoists the National Flag and addresses the nation on the Independence Day.
- In 1656 Shahjahan constructed the Jama Masjid in Delhi. It is the biggest masjid in India. The first masjid in India was constructed at Kodungallur in Kerala (Cheraman Palli) in 644 AD by Malik Ibn Dinar.
- Shah Jahan’s period is known as the Golden Age of Mughal Empire.
- The Portuguese introduced European painting in India during the reign of Shah Jahan
- In 1658 Shah Jahan was imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb and he died in 1666, after eight years. His daughter Jahan Ara was also kept in prison along with him at the Agra Fort.
- Shah Jahan’s son Dara Shikoh was a famous scholar. He translated Bhagavat Gita and Sixty Upanishads into Persian. He also wrote a book titled Mujm-ul-Behrain (Mingling of the Oceans) He also translated Atharva Veda into Persian.
- Shah Jahan was a famous lyricist who wrote in Hindi. The famous Peacock Throne was built by Shah Jahan. It was abducted from here by Nadir Shah in 1739 during his Indian invasion (Persian conqueror). Now it is kept at the London Tower Museum, Britain.
- French travelers Bernier and Tavernier, Italian travelers Nicoli Manucci, Peter Mundi visited India during Shah Jahan’s period.
- Shah Jahan’s period is considered as the Golden Age of Mughal Architecture and Shah Jahan is known as the Prince of Builders.
- In 1631, he started the construction of Taj Mahal in memory of his wife and completed in 1653. Ustad Iza, a Turkish/ Persian was its architect. British administrator Furguson called it ‘a love in marble’
- In 1638 Shah Jahan built his new capital Shahjahanabad in Delhi and shifted the capital from Agra to there. He also built Takht-i-Taus or Peacock throne.
- In 1639, he started the construction of Red Fort in Delhi on the model of Agra fort built by Akbar. The Diwan-i- Aam, Diwan-i-Khas and the Moti Masjid are situated inside the Red Fort. The Moti Masjid in Agra was constructed by Shah Jahan.