Solid State Battery

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Mar 7, 2023, 11:59

Automaker Volkswagen plans to start production of all Solid-State Batteries by 2025 in partnership with QuantumScape. QuantumScape's solid-state battery, a lithium metal with a solid electrolyte that separates the two electrodes, is considered a very bright outlook in the increasingly crowded space.

Significance of Solid-State Battery

All-solid-state batteries have a higher energy density than lithium-ion batteries that use liquid electrolyte solutions. There is no danger of explosion or fire, no safety parts are required and space is saved. This will give you more space to increase the battery capacity and put more active material into the battery.

Benefits of a Solid-State Battery

All-solid-state batteries can increase the energy density per unit area because only a few batteries are needed. This makes all-solid-state batteries ideal for creating high-capacity modules and packed electric vehicle (EV) battery systems.

The energy density of lithium-ion batteries used in today's mobile phones and electric vehicles is about four times that of older generation nickel-cadmium batteries.

Challenges related to a Solid-State Battery

Despite technological advances over the last decade, problems such as long charge times and inadequate energy density remain. Lithium-ion batteries for phones and laptops are considered efficient enough, but there is still a shortage of areas to make electric vehicles a viable alternative to internal combustion engines.

About Lithium-ion battery

Uses intercalated lithium compounds as electrode materials (intercalation is the reversible inclusion or incorporation of molecules into layered materials) compared to the metallic lithium used in non-rechargeable lithium batteries.

The battery is made of an electrolyte that allows the movement of ions, and the two electrodes are components of the lithium-ion battery cell.

Lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and return during charging.

Lithium-ion battery applications

  • Electronics, communications, aerospace, and industrial applications.
  • Lithium-ion battery technology makes it an ideal power source for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.

Benefits of the Liquid Lithium-ion batteries

  • Low processing cost
  • A flexible separator that can withstand high mechanical loads
  • High ionic conductivity only at room temperature Liquid Lithium-Ion Battery Challenge

Disadvantages of lithium-ion batteries

  • The loading time is long.
  • The big problem is that lithium metals are very reactive. There was a safety issue because the battery ignited.
  • It is expensive to manufacture.
  • Self-discharge can affect the shelf life
  • Electrolytes are flammable and can cause burns
  • The formation of the SEI layer can affect the life cycle
  • The choice of the cathode material is limited due to the electrolyte reaction
  • Poor thermal stability
  • Sensitive to overcharging

Lithium-ion batteries are considered sufficiently efficient for applications such as telephones and laptops, but for electric vehicles, these cells range from being a viable alternative to internal combustion engines.

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Benefits of using a Solid State Battery over a Lithium Battery

  1. Higher cell energy density
  2. The advantages of all-solid-state battery technology are higher cell energy density (by eliminating the carbon anode), and faster charging time (by eliminating the need to diffuse lithium into the carbon particles of conventional lithium-ion cells). )
  3. Cycles that include the ability to circulate more charge will extend battery life and improve security.
  4. Cost-effective: Battery costs are a major driver of vehicle costs and account for 30% of total costs, so cost reductions can play an important role. QuantumScape claims that it aims to reduce battery costs by 15-20% in a few years compared to the cost of lithium-ion batteries.
  5. Excellent thermal stability
  6. Low emissions
  7. High ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range
  8. The electrolyte used is volatile
  9. The electrolyte is non-flammable and can be used safely
  10. They have a high energy density and high tolerance

Challenges of using the Solid State Battery

  • Ceramic separators are rigid and can be damaged by additional stress
  • Longer service life as no SEI layer formation occurs

Let's conclude by listing the potential alternatives to a Solid-State Battery:

  1. Graphene Batteries
  2. Fluoride Batteries
  3. Sand Battery
  4. Ammonia-powered Batteries
  5. Lithium-sulfur Batteries
  6. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrode
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FAQs on Solid-State Battery

Q.1. How is the Solid State Battery in terms of tolerance and energy density as compared to the liquid lithium-ion battery?

The energy density and tolerance are much higher in a Solid-State Battery as compared to the lithium ones

Q.2. Is there an SEI layer formation in a solid-state battery?

No, the Solid State Battery does not have an SEI layer formation, which leads to a longer life cycle.

Q.3.Thermal stability is better in which battery - Solid-State Battery or liquid lithium-ion battery?

Thermal stability is much better in the Solid State Battery as it is quite poor in the lithium ones

Q.4. Which one is more expensive - A Solid-State Battery or a liquid lithium-ion battery?

The processing and formation costs of a Solid-State Battery are much lesser than the Lithium battery.

Q.5.Which one is safer to use - A solid State Battery or a liquid lithium-ion battery?

A Solid State Battery is safer than a liquid lithium battery because electrolytes of the former are flammable and safe to use, while in the latter one, they can cause combustion