Political System of France

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 24, 2022, 8:04

France is a sovereign state with foreign and domestic territory under its control. The Political System of France was legislated on 4th October 1958 and was founded mainly on the regulations specified by General de Gaulle during his speech in Bayeux on 16th June 1946.

The Political System of France is made up of two chambers: the robust parliamentary system and the responsibility of the President toward the people. The Constitution has been changed many times since the commencement of the Fifth Republic; the last amendments were made in July 2008.

Political System of France - Overview

  1. France has a vibrant democracy consisting of The Fifth Republic, Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches.
  2. The Constitution of France defines the institution of governance. The Constitutional System In France does not comprise a bill of rights in itself, but its preamble states that France follows the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen and those of the preamble to the Constitution of the Fourth Republic.
  3. France is both a republic and a parliamentary democracy; it has a mixed presidential/ parliamentary political functionality. The French President is the head of the state; he is the one who selects the Prime Minister.

Political System of France - The Fifth Republic

It was established in 1958 and the major work done on the Fifth Republic was by the first President and Prime Minister of France, General de Gaulle and Michel Debre. So far, it has been changed 17 times to date for good.

The Constitution was challenged by 85% of the people, amongst which 79% of them were in favour and among the foreign territories, only one country rejected the new Constitution, i.e., Guinea and later, withdrew itself from the French Community.

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Political System of France - The Executive Branch

  1. The President is the head of the state and head of the executive; universal voting chooses him.
  2. The government system of France is called semi-presidential because both Prime Minister and President run the country simultaneously.
  3. Initially, the Fifth Republic's President was elected for 7 years and could be renewed any number of times. Later, in 2002, the rule changed, and now the President is elected for only 5 years, and the number of times he can renew the Presidentship changed to twice in the year 2008.
  4. President is more powerful than the Prime Minister; in fact, he can also ask him to resign if they are in the same party.

Political System of France - The Legislative Branch

  1. As per the Constitutional System In France, the parliament is made up of two chambers: The national assembly and Senate.
  2. The members of the national assembly are elected by universal ballot, and grand electors elect the members of the Senate.
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Political System of France - The Judicial Branch

This is an independent branch that does not rely on the executive and legislative branches. The Code Civil is the official handbook of French Civil Law.

The leading decision-making body in France is the central French government, and they are the ones who look after the policy development in zones like healthcare, education, and public transport. But, there are 3 tiers of government under the national government that operate multiple administrative and legal functions.

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FAQs on the Political System of France

Q1. As per the Political System of France, how many members are there in the National Assembly?

As per the Political System of France, there are 577 deputies that are directly elected for 5 years in the national assembly.

Q2. Looking at the political system in France, as of now, who is in power?

As per the Political System of France, both President and Prime Minister are in power. The current President of France is Emmanuel Macron, and Prime Minister is Jean Castex.

Q3. As per the Political System of France, where does the Prime Minister reside?

According to the Political System of France, the Prime Minister resides in the Elysée Palace in Paris.

Q4. What is the role of the Constitutional council as per the Political System of France?

As per the Political System of France, its role is to analyse the constitutionality of any new law or decree.