Political System in Germany

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 24, 2022, 8:56

Germany is a Parliamentary Democracy and the Federal Republic. Germany's constitution of the Federal Law is called the Basic Law. It is an economically prosperous, democratic, value-based and cosmopolitan country. You need to know about the Political System in Germany as it provides you with information on state services like universities, health insurance, news, laws, etc.

Structure of the Political System in Germany

As mentioned above, Germany is a Federal democracy that comprises an independent judiciary, powerful political parties and strong regional and local government. Chancellor directs the German government, and he is chosen by the public and retains executive power.

  1. Two chambers control the legislative power: the Bundestag (it comprises 709 elected MPs) and the Bundesrat ( it represents the 16 federal German states and works as the upper chamber.)
  2. As per the Constitutional System in Germany, the federal word refers to the method by which the power is segregated nationally. For example, the Institutions in Berlin have several Federal powers; they make decisions that are later circulated across regional boundaries.
  3. On the contrary, numerous powers are limited to local authorities and regional assemblies only. They have this system because they do not want all the power with the centre as it could be a threat to the German democracy.
  4. The written constitution of Germany came into effect on 23 May 1949, and later, it was embraced on 3 October 1990 by the united German state.

Role of the Political System in Germany

Germany is a constitutional democracy; therefore, the rules where the power lies and how the people will be elected are all stated by a core document. Anyone altering this document should do it with proper vigilance. The best part about the constitutional system in Germany is that it has been modified to suit the changing requirements and is said to be one of the most flexible constitutions worldwide.

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Political System in Germany - Main Political Parties

The main political parties of Germany are-

Social Democratic Party- It was founded in 1875 and is the oldest political party in Germany.

CDU/CSU- It is a union between two old and conservative Christian parties in Germany.

The Greens/Alliance 90- It was established in 1993 when the two major parties merged, that was the eastern German Alliance '90 and the western Green Party.

Free Democratic Party- It is the liberal party of the country, and they believe in social and economic liberalism, just like the liberal democrats of the UK.

Alternative for Germany- It is also called AfD; this part was formed in 2013. It is a nationalist and right-wing populist and nationalist German party.

The Left- This party was established in 2007; it has 39 parliamentary seats as of now. In 2017 they had 69 seats which have now decreased to just 39.

☛ Also Read: Current Affairs Today

This was about the Constitutional System in Germany, it is slightly different from other nations, but a little understanding gives all the clarity. You should know that the major power lies in the hands of the Head of State, i.e., the German President, Frank-Walter Steinmeier.

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FAQs on Political System in Germany

Q1. As per the Political System in Germany, what are the five permanent constitutional bodies?

The five permanent constitutional bodies as per the Political System in Germany are-

  • The Federal President
  • The Bundestag
  • The Bundesrat
  • The Federal Government
  • The Federal Constitutional Court

Q2. At present, according to the Political System in Germany, which are the three parties that form the government?

The Political System in Germany is currently run by three parties that form the government-

  • The political group SPD
  • Bundnis 90/Die Grunen
  • The FDP

These three parties agree to govern the country for the next four years.

Q3. What were the changes made in the Political System in Germany after the pandemic?

There was a significant change in the Political System in Germany after the pandemic; a permanent federal and state crisis unit was established, along with a new permanent unit of specialists in the Federal Chancellery.

Q4. What are the things added to the Political System in Germany lately?

In the Political System in Germany, a new law will be passed in which they plan to increase the minimum wage from 9.60 euros to 12 euros.