Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT] is one of the most prominent reproductive biotechnologies. In this process, the embryo is collected from the female donor with superior genes and transferred into the recipient's uterus, a female with average or inferior genes. The embryo remains inside the reproductive tract of the recipient until birth.
Significance of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT]
Since superior genes from males and females are used to advance the quality of livestock, the innovation of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT] has globally revolutionised the breeding strategies and techniques used to enhance the genetic material in cattle. The first successful embryo transfer was carried out in a rabbit in 1890 by Heap.
Role of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT]
A newborn female calf has more than 150,000 ova. It indicates enormous reproductive potential capacity, which is heavily underutilized.
With the introduction of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT], the cow can go from producing 8-10 calves in her lifetime to 32 healthy embryos per year.
It increases the number of livestock, but it also enhances the genes of the offspring.
Advantages of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT]
Some perks of using Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT] are-
- Enhances the genetic potential of the herd in a short duration
- Improves the quality and quantity of milk production in dairy herds
- Increases the number of cows reproduced by genetically superior donors
- Embryos can be stored indefinitely. It helps preserve superior genetics for the future generation of the livestock.
- Increases the weaning weight of beef
- The offspring will be resistant to diseases.
- Producing offspring from animals that are old, injured, or incapable of breeding.
Disadvantages of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT]
As with any program or technology with certain benefits, it also has its downfalls.
Here are some disadvantages of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT] -
- High maintenance cost of recipient females
- ETT can be expensive
- The success rates of ETT are lesser than AI.
- Synchronisation of recipient and donor can be hard to maintain
- Need for a trend professional and specialised equipment
- Possibility of a disease outbreak through recipients.
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Selection criteria for the donor Cow
- Impeccable reproductive ability
- High milking capacity
- Healthy growth rate
- Free of genetic abnormalities
- The genes of the donor cow should be fertilised with the superior genes of a bull to maintain the genetic superiority of the embryo.
The Indian government has launched missions to encourage farmers to adapt to the latest printing technologies and improve India's agriculture and livestock sector. While Embryo Transfer Technology has been around for a while, most farmers still don't have enough resources to bb practice it.
FAQs onEmbryo Transfer Technology [ETT]
Q1. In the context of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT], when was Rashtriya Gokul Mission?
Ans. The Ministry of agriculture launched Rashtriya Gokul Mission in December 2014 to conserve and increase the number of indigenous bovine breeds through Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT].
Q2. State three applications of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT]?
Answer. The applications of Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT] are-
- Import and export
- Disease control
- Circumvention of infertility
Q3. With regards to the Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT], list the names of some indigenous bovines
Ans. With regards to the Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT], The Names of Some indigenous bovines are Sahiwal, Res Sindhi, Vechur, Ongole and Deoni.
Q4. What are the steps involved in Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT]?
Ans. The steps involved in Embryo Transfer Technology [ETT]are -
- Selection of donor
- Selection of recipient
- Synchronisation of donor and recipient
- Superovulation of donor with top-notch quality semen
- Artificial insemination of donor
- Embryo collection
- Evaluation of embryo
- Micromanipulation or transfer of the embryo