Criminal Courts

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Jun 3, 2022, 6:41

The criminal justice system in India aims to punish those guilty of a crime and protect innocent people. It is expected that the criminal justice system will install a system of security for the country's people by dealing with crimes and criminals. In the recent past, many prisoners were granted bail owing to the rising incidence of Covid-19.

Among the many organs of such a justice system are Criminal Courts in India, which are charged with the duty to oversee the judiciary system. Accordingly, people can seek justice for crimes committed against them or actions against the law.

The hierarchy of Criminal Courts is established according to the rules, which can be found in the code of criminal procedure, 1973. The highest criminal court in India is the Supreme Court of India, followed by the High Court and other classes of courts.

Different Classes Of Criminal Courts In India

In India, different classes of Criminal Courts oversee the justice system in the country. These include the supreme court, the High Court, the court of session, the judicial magistrate of the first class, the metropolitan magistrates, the judicial magistrates of the second class and the executive magistrates.

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Functions Of The Criminal Courts

Administration Of Justice

The main purpose of Criminal Courts is to apply the applicable laws suitable in specific cases and bring down any disputes that follow them. This is done based on the determination of facts, which will help the court impose a penalty on those found guilty.

Creating A Judge Case Law

The cases decided by a judge in a court help make similar decisions as per the appropriate law in similar cases.

Protects Fundamental Rights

By enforcing the fundamental rights of the citizens, Criminal Courts ensure that the rights of people are not trampled upon by those who are guilty.


Criminal Courts also function as an advisory body for other entities, which helps arrive at a suitable outcome in the event of a criminal mishappening.

Conducting Judicial Enquiry

Judges of Criminal Courts hold the power to conduct an enquiry into a case of criminal activity. They can force a confession or presentation of evidence-based on the powers vested in them by the judicial authority of India.

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Hierarchy Of Criminal Courts In India

The Supreme Court is the highest in India, and the High Court of India operates under it. The latter is further segregated into Metropolitan courts and district and sessions courts. Each such court is divided into civil and Criminal Courts.

A criminal court is further divided into a sessions court, chief metropolitan court and Metropolitan magistrate court.

The institution of Criminal Courts ensures that those who are guilty are tried in a court of law and taken to their ultimate destination as per the court's decision. Criminal law deals with crimes committed by a citizen or an entity.

Usually, a proceeding at a criminal court begins with the local police filing a crime report. It is ultimately on the court to determine the matter and pass judgement.

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FAQs on Criminal Courts

Q:1 Which type of judges try cases in Criminal Courts?

In a Criminal Courts, cases are tried by sessions judges, chief metropolitan judges, metropolitan magistrate first-class judges and judicial magistrate second class judges.

Q:2 Describe the working of Criminal Courts.

Criminal Courts usually work in multiple stages, which pertain to the stage of working in a criminal court. These stages include inception, trial and punishment.

Q:3 What kind of cases are heard at Criminal Courts?

In a Criminal Courts, several different types of cases are heard, which pertain to incidents of robbery, kidnapping, financial fraud, murders, and conspiracy to commit a crime.

Q:4 What is the difference between civil and Criminal Courts?

Civil courts usually deal with cases of disputes arising due to money, debt, property, housing, and marriage. On the other hand, a criminal court deals with cases concerned with serious crimes like robbery, murder, etc.