The Battle of Chandawar (1194) was fought between Mu'izz al-Din Mohammad Ghori, Sultan of the Ghurid Empire and Jaya Chandra (Jaichand) of Kannauj (Raja of Banaras) of the Gahadavala dynasty.
It occurred in Chandawar (modern-day Firozabad), on the banks of the Jamuna River near Agra.
Battle of Chandawar Important Facts
Unlike Muhammad Ghazni, a monarch of the Ghurid Empire who intended to pillage India's wealth, Muhammad Ghori was motivated to establish his authority over India. To establish a strong foothold in North India, the Turks had to first defeat the powerful Gahadavala kingdom of Kannauj.
Muhammad Ghori realised the importance of Kannauj, and with 50,000 cavalries, he started marching towards Kannauj and Banaras in 1193. At that time, the Gahadavala dynasty of Kannauj was ruled by Jaichand, the son of Vijaychandra.
During the Battle of Chandawar, Jaichand was hit by an arrow and fell from the elephant. After the war, he could only be identified by the gold capping on his teeth. He was defeated and killed. With the loss of their leader, the Gahadavala army disbanded and fled, suffering significant fatalities in the process.
An alternative myth holds that Jaichand escaped from the fight and established a new dynasty in the Kumaon Hills. However, there is no historical evidence to support this claim.
The Aftermath of the Battle of Chandawar
After defeating Jai Chand in the Battle of Chandawar, Mohammad Ghori gained control of much of northern India. After this, Mohammad Ghori looted the fort of Asni, where Jaichand had stored his treasure.
The Kannauj/Gahadavala army expected Ghori to strike the capital next, but instead, he attacked the vulnerable city of Varanasi, a popular Hindu pilgrimage site.
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In AD 1197, Harishchandra, the son of Jai Chand, was able to evict the Turkic garrisons, reclaiming Kannauj, Jaunpur, and Mirzapur. As a result, the Gahadavala dynasty persisted during Harishchandra's reign.
Many important centres of the Gahadavala dynasty remained independent, yet the conquest of Tarain and Chandawar by Muhammad Ghori laid the foundation of the Ottoman state in India. The Battle of Chandawar was Mohammad Ghori's second major victory after defeating the Rajput ruler Prithviraj Chauhan in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192. The victory of Tarain and the Battle of Chandawar laid the foundation for Turkish rule in India.
FAQs on the Battle of Chandawar
Q1. When was the Battle of Chandawar fought?
The Battle of Chandawar has fought between Muhammad Ghori and Jaichand in the year 1193 AD.
Q2. Where was the Battle of Chandawar fought?
The Battle of Chandawar was fought at present-day Firozabad near the plains of Yamuna River. In the 12th century, the place was a stronghold of the Gahadavala dynasty.
Q3. Who was defeated in the Battle of Chandawar in 1194?
Mohammad Ghori defeated Jai Chand Gadhawal and eventually killed him during the Battle of Chandawar. The conquest in this battle gave Muhammad control over much of north India.
Q4. What happened after the Battle of Chandawar?
The Ghurids captured 300 elephants alive just after the Battle of Chandawar, raided the Gahadavala treasury, and seized control of the Asni fort.