Talent is a narrow term and refers to the remarkable ability in a specific field e.g. spiritual, social and aesthetic, etc. The highly talented are called "prodigies". Talented Learners depend on a combination of high ability, high creativity, and high commitment. Talented learners show signs of intellectual superiority. Even during infancy and early childhood, they show a larger attention span, good recognition memory, preference for novelty, sensitivity to environmental exchanges, and early appearance of language skills. Every talented learner possesses different strengths, personalities, and characteristics. Some important characteristics of talented learners are:-
1. Advanced logical thinking, questioning, and problem-solving behaviour.
2. High speed in processing information.
3. Superior generalization and discrimination ability.
4. High level of intrinsic motivation and self-esteem.
5. Advanced level of original and creative thinking.
6. Independent and non-conformist thinking.
7. Preference for solitary academic activities for long periods.
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Creativity refers to new ways of thinking or thinking differently. For example- novelty and originality. Creative learning refers to the originality and uniqueness of ideas or solutions that did not previously exist. Creative learners can be of two types:
1. Convergent Learners- basically they derive solutions to problems that have only one correct answer, they are good at remembering dates, and timelines that do not have a comprehensive explanation. Perform well in Reasoning and Mathematics Subjects.
2. Divergent Learners- they are open-minded learners and can derive different answers to the same problem in terms of their knowledge, capabilities, and abilities. They generally include fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration.
(a) Fluency: Fluency is the ability to produce many ideas for a given task or a problem. The more ideas a person produces, the higher his/her fluency ability.
(b) Flexibility: Flexibility indicates variety in learning. It may include learning different uses of an object, a different interpretation of a picture, or story, or different ways of solving problems.
(c) Originality: It is the ability to produce ideas that are rare or unusual by seeing new relationships, combing old ideas with new ones, and looking at things from different perspectives.
(d) Elaboration: It is the ability that enables a person to go into detail and work out the implications of new ideas.
Specially-Abled Learners are classified into 3 categories:
|S.No.||Area of Functioning||Mild||Moderate||Severe||Profound|
|1.||IQ range||50-70||35-49||20-34||Below 20|
|2.||Self-help skills||Feeds and dresses self and cares for own toilet needs||Has difficulties and requires training but can learn adequate self-help skills||No skills to partial skills, but some can care for personal needs on a limited basis|
|3.||Speech & Communication||Receptive & expressive language is adequate, understands communication||Receptive & expressive language is adequate but has speech problems||Receptive language is limited, expressive language is poor|
|4.||Academics||The optimal learning environment, third to sixth grade||Very few academic skills, first or second grade is maximal||No Academic skills|
|5.||Social Skills||Has friends, can learn to adjust quickly||Capable of making friends but has difficulty in many social situations||Not capable of having real friends, no social interactions|
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Classification of People based on IQ
IQ scores are distributed in a population in such a way that most people tend to fall in the middle range of the distribution. This can be shown in the form of the following table:
|S.No.||IQ Range||Descriptive Label||Per cent in the Population|
|1.||Above 130||Very Superior||2.2|
|7.||Below 70||Mentally challenged/retarded||2.2|
Application of Talented and Creative Learners
Following are examples of talented and creative learners:
1. Multiple Intelligence (Gardner)
2. Practical Intelligence (Sternberg)
1. Theory of Multiple Intelligence- Howard Gardner proposed the theory of Multiple Intelligences. He described eight types of intelligence:
2. Practical Intelligence or Contextual Intelligence- Robert Sternberg (1985) views intelligence as the ability to adapt, shape, and select an environment to accomplish one's goals and those of one's society and culture.
- Involves the ability to deal with environmental demands encountered daily.
- It is called street smartness or business sense.
- Persons high on this aspect easily adapt to their present environment to fit their needs.
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