Academic evaluation is a particular technique through which an assessment of specifying and considering some of the features of a teaching-learning method is attempted. Evaluation is an indispensable part of any education system as it helps the teacher to verify if he/she has been successful in transferring the intended knowledge to the pupil.
In the Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Evaluation is described as, “A new technical term, introduced to designate a more comprehensive concept of measurement that is implied in conventional tests and examination.”
From the above-given definitions, we can conclude that:
- Evaluation is a process through which the user of a learning system is decided.
- Evaluation is a measurement that is involved in traditional tests and examinations.
- Evaluation is a method to decide if the desired goal is achieved by the pupils.
- MATHEMATICAL LEARNING:
Mathematics is a subject of reason and logic. Therefore, it is expected for a student of mathematics to acquire knowledge of certain facts and develop a rational mind. These students are believed to utilize the practical ideas of mathematics to solve real-life issues. So, a student of mathematics must learn to solve a problem with the help of logical skills. An educator of mathematics must evaluate if his/her students are acquiring the skills of thinking and analysis. They should keep in mind that the students must avoid mechanical methods of memorizing.
- EVALUATION PURPOSES:
Evaluation is a method through which the progress of the pupils is determined. It also assists the educators to understand different facts of teaching. Some facts are thus discussed below:
- Evaluation for the advancement of direction:
Before starting to teach a topic a teacher must have an appropriate lesson plan. While planning the lesson one must consider two vital factors, the subject matter and the types of audiences. The teacher needs to verify and also has the responsibility to check whether if the students are already aware of that topic and have some information related to the topic. Through this, the teacher can assess the level of comprehension of the students in the class.
- Diagnostic Evaluation: While coming to the check of comprehension level, a teacher may come across students who have higher levels of perception and also those who have an average level of perceptions. It is the responsibility of a teacher to identify the students according to their capacities before he/ she begins with a new lesson. The diagnostic evaluation mainly helps in the diagnosis of general and specific drawbacks in the students.
- Formative Evaluation: While teaching the students the teacher has to point out the advancement of learning and also the complications faced by the students. The teacher has to evaluate the methodical feedback regarding how the students are improving and how is the teaching plan functioning.
- Summative Evaluation: When the teacher completes teaching a unit he/she may want to help the students to have command over the topic. At this point, the teacher wants to assess the attainment of the students. This assessment is mainly done after the teaching method.
- Evaluation for improvement of education: Even for the learners, the process of evaluation is very much important. When a student has to appear for an examination, he/she has to act thoughtfully on the situation and they should perform. The student learns to focus and think deeply about the subject. It is observed that this particular student will retain the acquired knowledge for a long period of time than any other students who learned the same lesson generally.
- METHODS OF EVALUATION IN MATHEMATICS :
The objective of the evaluation is to achieve the desired goals in the teaching-learning methods. Therefore, different kinds of methods of evaluation have been embraced by educators. These methods are divided into two sections viz., Testing Techniques and Non- testing Techniques.
The most customary method of evaluation of Mathematics is Test. The purpose of the test is far-reaching.
- It helps to discover the capacities of a student to solve mathematical problems.
- It helps to assess the knowledge already acquired by the student about a new topic. This type of assessment is called Inventories.
- A test is conducted at the end of a new chapter to assess if the students have properly understood the lesson taught.
- Certain tests are conducted to find out the learning difficulties of students.
Teachers or experts are more preferred since the tests arranged by experts are easier than those arranged by the teachers. The tests which are arranged by the teachers are based on the latest curriculum and easily accessible. The customary test arranged by the teachers is an achievement test. Unit test, Term test and Annual tests are categorized under achievement tests.
- Unit Test:
Unit tests are arranged to assess the students’ knowledge level under that particular unit. These tests are useful for giving suggestions and advice to the students regarding their performance. To plan a unit test, a teacher has to look after test set-up, test attributes, assembly administration and scoring the test.
- Test set-up :
When a teacher plans to construct a unit test he/ she has to retain certain important facts in his/her mind; what is the purpose of that unit, the number of objects in the unit, the nature of the kind of the objects of the unit. This kind of test is a class test and not even an hour should be allotted for this. After deciding the content for the test the teacher must jot the points down. The teacher also has to decide the number of questions for the test. Even a test blueprint containing behavioural identification and the section of content should be prepared.
- Planning test attributes :
To plan the test attributes one must understand the nature of the required items. Both essay type and objective type items are required for the test. In Mathematics, the application of essay type test is applied to assess the skill of communication along with rational thinking and exactness of thinking. In this method, the students are expected to choose, arrange and unite data before answering the questions. But essay type items are not used much in number for the unit tests as answers to such questions are time-consuming.
Objective type items are mainly used to assess the knowledge of the pupil. This type of items is included to check if the students comprehend facts about different mathematical topics. Objective type items are desirable for unit tests.
- Test assembly, Administration and Scoring :
Assembly: After collecting the items of the test the teacher needs to arrange the test in a manner that it becomes comprehensible to the students.
Administration: The teacher must distribute question copies to each student. Then the teacher must ensure if the sitting arrangement of the students is appropriately organized.
Scoring: The teacher must prepare sample answers for the test questions.
NON- TESTING TECHNIQUES :
- Rating scales:
The rating scale is a system through which a teacher decides if the student is expressing interest in mathematics or not. Therefore, it is a set of behavioural features that have to be evaluated. This scale may consist of three or five categories scale. If the teacher needs it, he/she may add more categories to it.
The checklist is another method of evaluation through observation. It is basically a method through which the existence of certain characteristics is measured. Through this process, the abilities and disabilities of the students are found. With the help of this process, a teacher can easily find out the difficulties faced by the students. This method is effective as it helps to find out those problems which cannot be discovered through test methods.
- Observational Method:
Evaluation can not only be completed with tests alone but also with observations. There are so many factors that cannot be evaluated with the help of a test. Therefore, observation is another suitable method of evaluation. The teacher must observe the behaviour of the students while teaching them Mathematics. He/she can write them down and later analyze them.
Evaluation is a very important method to teach mathematics appropriately and this method is helpful for both the teacher and the students. Teachers learn about their students and students learn about their capacities and weaknesses. They learn how to improve and have command over the subject.
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|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||A Complete Resources for CTET: Mathematics and Pedagogy||Haneet Gandhi (Pearson)|
|2.||CTET & TETs for Class VI-VII Mathematics & Pedagogy||Arihant.|