Environmental Studies is a very important subject for CTET and other TET Exams. Things we can make & do is an important topic for the same. From the above-mentioned topic, 2 or 3 questions are asked every year, so here we are providing study notes on this topic. These study notes will be very helpful for CTET and State TET exam aspirants.
About Things we can make & do:
Anything that has mass and occupies space is known as matter. Matter can have the following two criteria for classification:
Classification of matter on the basis of physical features:
- Solid: It is a form of matter which has fixed shape and volume e.g. book, cell phone, bricks, etc.
- Liquid: It is a type of matter have fixed volume but no definite shape e.g. water, juice, oil, etc.
- Gas: It is a form of mater which don’t have any fixed shape or volume.
Classification of matter on the basis of a chemical feature:
- Elements: It is a matter which is made up of the same type of elements. Element further classified as metals or non-metals.
- Metal: Metal is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, conducts electricity and heat e.g. iron, copper, etc. Metals are malleable and ductile. They are mostly found in the solid-state except for mercury.
- Non-Metal: Non-Metals lack malleability, ductility, shine, and density. They have lower melting and boiling point e.g. sulphur, carbon, etc.
- Compounds: They are made from the combination of two or more elements in definite proportion and have fixed chemical formulae. e.g. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) water H2O etc.
- Mixture: It is made by combining two or more elements or compound in an indefinite ratio and proportion. It can be separated by the process of separation e.g. soil, ocean water, cement, smog, etc.
- Alloy: An alloy is a mixture of metal or another element. e.g. 22 Carat gold, steel, etc.
Different techniques are used for separating different mixtures:
For separating solid components:
- Manual Separation: Done by hands like concrete from grains
- Threshing: Used for separating edible parts of grains from the husk.
- Winnowing: Done after threshing, used for separating chaff surrounding the grains.
- Sieving: In this technique, a fine net can be used for separation like flour
- Magnetic Separation: Magnet is used for separation and iron, cobalt, nickel, steel, etc. can be separated by this technique.
For separation of solid and liquid :
- Sedimentation: Under this process water containing solid particles starts to settle down in the bottom of the container. Settling down of solid particles is caused by the effect of gravity.
- Decantation: This process can be done after sedimentation. This process is used for the separation of mixtures of immiscible liquids or of a liquid and a solid mixture such as a suspension.
- Filtration: In this process, a net or a filter paper is used for separating the solid component from the liquid. The liquid is passed through filter paper or net in which solid particles are trapped and the filtered water is collected in the vessel below.
- Evaporation: In this process liquid mixture containing solid are heated so that liquid evaporates and solid particles left behind.
- Centrifugation: It is a technique which involves the application of centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution according to their size, shape, density, a viscosity of the medium and rotor speed
- Distillation: In this process mixture of solid and liquid is heated and vapours formed are collected in another vessel in this way both the components get separated.
Separation of liquid from the liquid mixture:
- Separation cone method: This method is used for separating two immiscible liquid. The liquids present in the cone form bilayer and one-layer forms in the upper layer and the other layer forms in the bottom. The bottom layer can be easily drained and the upper layer liquid left in the cone. Thus, two liquid get separated.
- Fractional distillation: Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts or fractions. Chemical compounds are separated by heating them to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the mixture will vaporize. The vapours then collected and condensed into a separate container for each temperature. For example – Petroleum.
Force and friction:
Force can be described as any push or pull of an object due to this pull and push motion or place of an object changes. While friction is a force which resists a motion due to any push or pulls. Force of friction acts in the opposite direction of the driving force. For example – stopping of cycle, bike, car, etc. by applying the brake or when writing there is a friction between a tip of pen and paper.
Things We Do:
Sport: An activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment. Some of the famous sports and their sportspersons are-
Famous sports and Sportsperson:
- Badminton – Gopichand, Saina Nehwal, PV Sindhu
- Wrestling – Sushil Kumar, Yogeshwar Dutt, Sakshi Malik
- Cricket – Sachin Tendulkar, MS Dhoni, Virat Kohli
- Lawn tennis – Mahesh Bhupathi, Sania Mirza, Leander Paes,
- Boxing – Vijendra Singh, MC Marykom
- Weight lifting – Karnam Malleshwari
- Athletics – PT Usha
- Shooting - Abhinav Bindra
- Hockey- Major Dhyanchand
Dance: Dance is a performing art form consisting of willfully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value and is acknowledged as the dance by performers and observers within a particular culture.
Kinds of dances in India:
- Kuchipudi – Andhra Pradesh
- Manipuri – Manipur
- Garba – Gujrat
- Bharatanatyam – Tamil Nadu
- Odissi – Odisha
- Ghumar – Rajasthan
- Kathak – Uttar Pradesh
- Bamboo dance – Mizoram
- Bihu – Asom
- Kathakali – Kerala
- Bhangra and Giddha – Punjab
Festivals in India: A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centring on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures.
Festivals of India and their states:
- Ganesh Chaturthi – Maharashtra
- Onam – Kerala
- Pongal – Tamil Nadu
- Baisakhi – Punjab
- Chatth – Bihar
- Ugadi – Arunachala Pradesh
- Losar – Sikkim and Arunachala Pradesh
- Durga puja – West Bengal
Things we can make:
In India we make various things:
Art and craft: Arts and crafts describe a wide variety of activities involving making things with one's own hands.
Painting: Different types of paintings:
- Mahbubani painting (Bihar) - Natural things like leaf, flower and animals, birds and humans are portrayed, natural colours (colour from indigo, turmeric, and normal flowers) are used the paste of rice are used for magnifying the painting.
- Pata painting (Odisha) - Done on cloth and natural colors or minerals are used.
- Chitra Kathi paintings (Maharashtra) – This painting portrays the story and only natural colours are used for making.
- Kalamkari painting (Andhra Pradesh) – Done on clothes as block printing and natural colours are used.
- Phad painting (Rajasthan) – Done on clothes
Region or State
Rajasthan and Gujarat
Pashmina shawl shah toot
Jammu and Kashmir
Note: Pashmina shawl is as warm as six sweaters. It is very thin and warm. this shawl is made of goat’s wool which is found at a very high altitude of 5000 meters. this shawl is only made manually. 250 hours are requiring for weaving one shawl.
Commentswrite a comment