Meaning of Shelter:
The shelter is the place that provides protection from bad weather, heat, cold, winds, rains, danger, or attack. It is a place where animals or humans can rest or carry their regular day to day activities. The shelter of animals may be mostly on a temporary basis but for humans, it is usually on a permanent basis but some human changes shelter on the basis of their occupation, studies, etc. Shelter not only provides privacy but also stores our belongings.
Shelter is one of the basic human needs along with food, water, and a feeling of fellowship. It is a structure that protects us from the elements like rain, bad weather, excess heat, cold, winds, etc. and gives us a place to live.
Types of Shelters:
A shelter may be classified into two types:
Permanent shelter: It is a habitat of human beings and animals where they reside for a very long time like houses, nests, caves, etc. these shelters cannot be easily moved from one place to another.
Temporary shelter: These are the habitats where humans and animals reside for a very short duration or for a specific reason or purpose. For example – hostels, shelter homes, migratory birds’ nests, houseboats, etc. these shelter places can be moved or shifted from one place to another from time to time.
Some animals, birds, insects and their shelter:
- Lion – Den
- Horse and donkey – Stable
- Sheep – Pens
- Dog and goat – Kennels
- Hen – Coop
- Crocodile – Water or on land nearby water bodies
- Pigs – Sty or Pigsty
- Rabbit – Burrow
- Ants – Burrows or crawls on land
- Spider - Web
- Termites – Tree trunk and burrows
- Earthworm and scorpion – Burrow in soil
- Honeybee – Beehives
Different types of animals have different types of shelter depending upon the places where they live. Some of them are:
- Terrestrial animals: These are the animals that live on land with humans like a cow, buffalo in the shed, horses live in stables, and lion, tiger wolfs, etc. lives in the forest in caves.
- Aerial animals: Arboreal or aerial animals are the animals that live on air, trees, nests, etc. and these animals are monkey birds, apes, etc.
- Underground animals – These animal’s lives in burrows like rat, snakes, rabbits, earthworm, scorpion, etc.
- Aquatic animals – These animal’s lives in the water like fishes, frog, crocodiles, etc.
Birds and their shelter:
Indian Robin – Indian Robin makes the nest on the top of the tree with grass, soft twigs, root, wool, hair, and cotton wool and lays eggs between the stone.
Crow – Crow makes the nest on the top of the tree it uses wire, wood, grass, and twigs in making the nest.
Koel – Koel does not make its own nest and lays eggs in the nest of a crow. Crow hatches the egg of koel with their own eggs.
Sparrow and pigeon – These birds usually make their nest near or in our houses like on the top of the cupboard, on the ventilator, etc.
Tailorbird – The tailorbird uses its sharp beak to stitch the leaves for making its nest and lays eggs on the fold of leaves.
Barbet/ coppersmith – it makes its nest on the trunk of the tree.
Dove – Dove makes its nest among the thorn of a cactus plant or in a mehndi hedge.
Sunbird – Sunbird makes its nest by hanging the nest o the branches of the tree
Weaverbird – Male weaver bird makes the beautiful woven nest for its female to lay eggs.
It is a habitat where humans live. A human shelter is called a house. House can be of two types:
Kuccha house: These habitats are made up of wood, mud, straw, etc. for example – hut
Pucca house: These habitats are made up of concrete, bricks, iron, wood, etc. for example- flats, bungalows, etc.
Specific houses for the specific area:
Specific areas have specific climate or living conditions on the basis of area human makes its houses. The houses are –
- Houses made up of mud – These houses are made up of mud, fodder, bushes, acacia wood, grass, etc.
- These houses generally found in the areas where there is an extremely hot climate or in villages
- These houses generally found in the Villages of Rajasthan so that heat cannot cross it.
- These houses are generally painted with cow dung and mud in order to protect it from insects.
- Houses made up of wood and bamboo- These houses are found in areas that receive heavy rainfall. These houses are generally made up of bamboo and wood. These houses are 10-12 feet above the ground so that they can be protected from the flood. These houses are found in Assam and in the north-eastern areas.
- Stone houses – Stone houses are found in cold desert areas like Ladakh. These houses are made up of stones having two floors. These houses are coated with mud and lime thick layer. The woods are used in making floor or ceiling in these types of houses. The ground floor generally here do not have windows. peoples here live on the first floor and sometimes shifted to the ground floor during intense cold and on the roof vegetables and fruits kept for drying.
- Houses made of stone and wood – These houses are found in hilly areas with a good amount of rainfall and snowfall. These houses are made up of bricks of stone and wood. roofs here are made of wood on both sides in a sloping way. These houses are found in Srinagar, Manali, and other areas of Kashmir valley. in Srinagar beautiful carving (known as Mehraab) of wood with arches are made on the ceiling, door, and windows. And in Srinagar’s old houses a special window known as dab can be found.
- Houseboat – A houseboat is found in water and can be made of wood. The houseboats found in Kashmir and Kerala. A beautiful wooden carving found in the boat known as the khatam band. These houses can be up to 80 feet long and 8-9 feet wide.
- Other houses -
- High-rise buildings – These buildings are found in big or metro cities of plain areas. These are made of bricks, cement, iron, steel, etc.
- Donga – Donga are the houses present on the boat are found in Dal lake of Kashmir.
- Tent house – These houses are made up of plastics, clothes. generally, mountaineers used these houses. Changpa tribe of Ladakh uses the yak hair woven strip for making a cone-shaped tent called Rebo.
- Igloo – These houses are found in the very cold region and it is made up of ice sheets. these houses are oval in shape with a very small entry gate.
Questions-Based on the Topic:
Q1. Where does cuckoo/koel lay their eggs?
- In the nest on the top of a tree
- In the dove’s nest
- In crow’s nest
- In between the stones
Ans. Koel does not make its nest. It gives eggs in the nest of a crow and the crow hatches them with their own eggs.
Q2. Which among the following bird makes its nest on top of the tree?
Ans. Crow – It makes the nest on the top of the tree it uses wire, wood, grass, and twigs in making the nest.
Q3. In hot desert areas having bushes, acacia tree which type of houses are found?
- Houses made of stones
- Tent houses
- Houses made of wood
- Houses made of mud
Ans. In hot desert areas, the houses of mud are found in order to adapt to excessive heat, the wall of the houses is made thick so that heat does not cross them. Here roofs of the houses are made of bushes, fodder, and wood of acacia in order to protect the roof from insects.
Q4. Bamboo houses that are made 10-12 feet above the ground are found mostly in –
- Desert areas
- Heavy rain areas
- Hilly areas
- Cold areas
Ans. Bamboo houses that are made 10-12 feet above the ground level are found in heavy rain areas in order to protect the houses from a flood. These houses are found in Assam and in some other parts of North-East.
Q5. In the Ladakh area which type of houses are found?
- Houses made of stone and wood
- Houses made of stones
- Houses made of mud
- Houses made of wood and bamboo
Ans. Stone houses are found in cold desert areas of Ladakh and other hilly desert areas. These houses are made of stones which kept one over the other. here wooden floor or wooden ceiling made or walls are coated with lime and mud.
Q6. Which among the following is a house where the khatam band is found?
- None of the above
Ans. Houseboats have a khatam band. khatam band is a beautiful wooden carving. these houseboats are found in Kerala and Kashmir. houseboats can be 80 feet long and 8-9 feet wide.
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