Grammar is a set of structured rules which include the composition of clauses, phrases, and words. It is the study of practices in phonology, morphology, and syntax. It is the study of words and how these words collaboratively work together. It is an integral part of the English language, which helps in speaking and writing English.
Grammar helps the learners to identify the sounds of English words, the meanings, and the different styles of putting words together to make meaningful sentences. The learner may be active speakers of English, but they need guidance to become competent writers. They need to learn how to transfer the knowledge of grammatical concepts from oral language to written language. Grammar plays a vital role to help learners develop the habit of thinking clearly and logically. Grammar allows learners to become more accurate when using an expression. The correct usage of grammar helps in better and proper communication. There is no scope of miscommunication when grammar is used correctly. Grammar also plays an integral role in expressing the thoughts, ideas, and viewpoints of the learners. A learner with poor grammar skills will not be able to express himself/herself systematically, meaningfully, and correctly also causing miscommunication. Grammar improves the development of fluency. When students are well-versed with grammar, it will be easier for that student to know how to organize and express their ideas in their minds without difficulty. As a result, they will be able to speak, read, and write the language more fluently.
Methods used in Language Teaching:
It is used where the necessity of learning a second language other than the mother language is felt. It is also known as the classical method. It came to India along with the Britishers. Under this method, the meaning of English words, phrases, and sentences is taught through word- for word translation into the mother tongue. It is based on two principles- a) a foreign language can be easily explained through translation and grammar is the soul of language. Textbooks occupy an essential place in this method. Grammar is taught by the deductive method, i.e. the teacher explains the rules of grammar and students memorize it and then practice on it. Stress is laid on reading and writing.
It is also known as the natural method because the learner is expected to learn the new language in a logical manner like their mother tongue. In the beginning, it emphasizes the oral work is enhancing the listening and speaking skills of the learner. In this method, grammar is taught inductively. Examples are used and given before explaining the rules. The use of the mother tongue is avoided, and vocabulary is guided directly to the learners. Audio-visual aids are used extensively. This method lays more emphasis on the speech. The technique of constant conversation is used widely in this method. Students are active participants in this method, unlike the grammar method, where students are passive listeners.
This method was devised to overcome the defects of the direct approach. It is a natural way of learning as a mother tongue is used frequently. Both the students and the teachers actively participate in this method. It improves the creative thinking of the students and also develops their listening, reading, and writing skills. In this method, the learner learns a large number of sentences without memorizing the grammatical rules. Students learn correct pronunciation, articulation, intonation, and fluency because of oral drills.
The teacher should select an easy sentence as a model sentence and repeat this sentence two-three times. Students should be asked to repeat the sentences and errors of pronunciation, accent; intonation should be corrected immediately. The meaning of the sentence should be explained with the help of pictures, objects, gestures, etc. the teacher can use the mother tongue to explain the meaning of the sentence clearly. The teacher should then ask the students to give similar words for one item. The teacher should make the meaning of substituted words clear by using aids.
It means the study of two languages at the same time. In this method, situations are created by giving the mother- tongue equivalent of English words. Mother- tongue is used for explaining the meaning of new words, phrases, idioms, and grammatical rules. The teacher explains the subject matter with the help of translations. This method ensures accuracy as the meaning of English sentences and words are given in the mother tongue. It also provides fluency in speaking as it lays stress on speech practice.
Total Physical Response:
It is based on instructions provided by the teacher, which included physical movements, and students respond to them by listening. It is the coordination of language and physical movement. The listening of action and the responding of work helps in two ways- it is a means of acquiescent learning the structure of the language and quickly recognizing meaning in the language being learned. It is used to help the students with vocabulary and phrasal verbs. The total physical response is often used alongside other methods and techniques.
Linguistic Communicative Approach:
This method helps in developing the reading, speaking, writing, and listening skills of the learners. It is an interactive process. It provides opportunities for students to communicate their ideas through discussion, dialogue delivery, debate, and cultural activity. It develops the speech ability of the students. The different modes of communication used are- oral and written. In this process, the information is transmitted through a message from the sender to the receiver through a communication channel. In classroom teaching, there is an interaction between the teacher and the students involving initiation and response, which serves as feedback. Delicate and complex concepts can be taught through his approach. It helps in diagnosing the weakness of the learner.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||High School English Grammar and Composition||H. Martin and P. C. Wren|
|2.||Objective General English||S.P. Bakshi|
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