Study notes on Indian Independence & National Movement

By Karishma Singh|Updated : September 21st, 2022

In the Social Studies portion of CTET, every year around 15-20 questions are asked about history. There are some important topics, out of which today we are discussing Indian National Independence Movement. Though it is a bit tough to remember the chronology of the events, then too if you read it twice you will be able to recall the correct answer with the help of options.

Indian National Congress (INC): INC was established by a retired British Civil Servant A.O.Hume in 1885. The delegation of 73 Indians met in Bombay and founded INC.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan launched a movement for Muslim regeneration and founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. Later it was renamed Aligarh Muslim University in 1920.

Indian National Congress splits in 1907:  INC splits into two fractions: the radicals and the moderates. The radicals led by Tilak advocated civil agitation and direct revolution to overthrow the British Empire. While, the moderates led by leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji and Gopal Krishna Gokhale, they advocated the reform within the framework of British rule.

Bengal Partition: Lord Curzon in 1905, through a royal proclamation ordered to reduce the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of the rest of Bengal. Against this decision, an anti-partition movement called Swadeshi Movement was launched. Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal (commonly known as Lal, Bal, Pal) and Aurobindo Ghosh played important roles.

Indian Councils Act or Minto-Morley Reforms: The reforms were announced by the British Government through Indian Councils Act. In these reforms, besides other constitutional measures, a separate electorate for Muslims was accepted.  A separate electorate meant that Muslims will be voted as an individual electorate, and Muslims will elect the Muslim representative in the Muslim constituency.

Home rule Movement: This movement was started in 1916 by BG Tilak and Annie Besant at Adyar, Madras. The objective of this movement is to establish self-government for India under British Empire.

Rowlatt Act: This Act was passed in 1919, it gives free power to the government to arrest and imprison suspects without trials.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919): General O’ Dyer open fire at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Amritsar in April 1919.

Non-cooperation Movement: The movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920. This movement was the first mass-based political movement.

Lahore Session: The Lahore session of INC in 1929 adopted a tri-colour flag. The flag was unfurled for the first time and January 26, 1930, was fixed as the First Independence Day, which was to be celebrated every year. Also, in 1929 at Lahore Session, INC declared Poorna Swaraj as its ultimate goal.

Dandi March: Mahatma Gandhi started his march from Sabarmati Ashram in protest of the Salt Law. He started his march for the small village of Dandi to break the salt law. On the coast of the sea, he picked a handful of salt and launched the Civil Disobedience Movement.


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