Definition of socialization by various sociologists:-
WF Ogburn:-According to him socialization is the process of learning the norms of the group and society.
ES Bogardus:- According to him, socialization is a process of learning to live and work together.
JJ Macionis:- socialization is a lifelong process by which an individual becomes a proper member of society and develops human characteristics.
Type of Socialisation:
There are two main types of socialization:
- Primary Socialisation
- Secondary Socialisation
Primary socialization:- the period early in a person's life during which they initially learn and build their selves through experiences and interactions around them. The period of primary socialization starts with the birth of the child. At that time, the child has no conception and comes only with the sensory schema. It is called primary due to two facts first is it happens at the starting phase of life and second, most importantly, it has a powerful impact on our lives and plays determining role in shaping attitudes. Primary socialization usually happens in the family. The primary agent of socialization is family because during our early years we acquire human skills, goals, and attitudes of our culture and society from the family.
Secondary Socialisation:- secondary socialization starts with a child’s first steps into the larger society. It refers to the process of learning what is the appropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the larger society. Basically, it is the behavioral patterns reinforced by socializing agents of society. Secondary socialization takes place outside the home. Although most of the learning of roles, skills, and proper behaviors occur during secondary socialization.
Factor influencing socialization:
There are four factors influencing the process of socialization.
Imitation:- Imitation is the main factor in the process of socialization of the child. Through it, he learns many social behavior patterns by copying someone. Language and pronunciation are acquired by the child only through imitation.
Suggestion:- Suggestion is the process of communicating information, which has no logical or self-evident basis. It is devoid of rational persuasion. It may be conveyed through language, pictures, or some similar medium to the child. Suggestion influences not only behavior with others but also one's own private and individual behavior.
Identification:- At an early age, the child cannot differentiate between his organism and environment. Most of his actions are random, natural, and unconscious. As the child grows in age, he realizes the nature of things, which satisfy his needs. Such things become the object of his identification. Thus, the toy with which he plays, the mother who feeds him becomes the object of his identification. Through identification he becomes sociable.
Language:- Language is the medium of cultural transmission and social interaction. At first, the child speaks some random syllables which have no meaning, but gradually he comes to know his mother tongue.
Agencies of Socialisation:
Socialization occurs throughout our life, Four of the most influential agents of socialization during that phase of our lives are:
- The family
- The school
- The peer relationship
- Mass media
The Family:-The child’s first word is that of his family. This is the primary agent of socialization. It is here that the child develops an initial sense of self and habit-training—eating, sleeping, etc. parents play a critical role in guiding children into their gender roles deemed appropriate in society. Families also teach children values they will hold throughout life. They frequently adopt their parents’ attitudes not only about work but also about the importance of education, patriotism, and religion.
The school:-After family the educational institutions take over the charge of socialization. it is in this space that children from different families assemble to gain one common knowledge. Children develop a set of relations in school with teachers and among classmates. The school helps the child to adapt to the social order, functioning to prepare the child for stable adult life. It has been said that learning at home is on a personal, emotional level, whereas learning at school is basically intellectual.
The Peer relationship:- The peer group members are usually children of the same age and have similar status. As children grow older, the family becomes less important in their social development. Children come to attach more with their peer groups and spend much time in their company. However, peer groups generally affect only short-term interests unlike the family, which has a long-term influence.
Mass media:-The media influence has grown exponentially with the advance of technology. Since the last century, technological innovations such as radio, motion pictures, recorded music, and television have become important agents of socialization. The mass media introduced worldwide cultures and norms that the child would otherwise not become aware of. The other agents of socialization, family, peer groups, and school are most commonly a part of one society and one culture, but the mass media enlarges one’s exposure to the social world.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|
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