Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 - 1412):
- Tughlaq Dynasty was founded by Ghiazuddin Tughlaq. His real name was Ghazi Malik.
- Ghiasuddin Tughlaq founded the dynasty after killing Khuzru Khan in 1320. Ghiazuddin died by the collapse of a pavilion.
- He built the Tughlaqabad Fort in Delhi the third city of Delhi to the east of the Qutub complex.
- Ghiassudhin Tughlaq was the first Sulthan to start irrigation works.
- GhiassuddinTughlaq was succeeded by his son Jauna Khan, popularly known as Muhammed Bin Tughlaq.
- Muhammed Bin Tughlaq is considered the single most responsible person for the decline of the Delhi Sultanate.
- Muhammed Bin Tughlaq was known as a mixture of opposites, wisest fool, Pagal padushah, unfortunate idealogue and the predecessor of Akbar in intellectual and religious matters.
- Ibn Batuta called him ‘‘an illstared idealist’’.
- He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad) in 1327.
- In 1330 he introduced the token currency of bronze and copper.
- Moroccan Traveller Ibn Batuta visited India during his period.
- Edward Thanas described him as a ‘prince of moneyers’.
- Muhammed Bin Tughlaq was succeeded by his elderly cousin, Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the first Sulthan of Delhi to impose Jaziya. It was a religious tax for the freedom of worship. He imposed it only upon Brahmins.
- He built the city of Firozbad in Delhi. The Firoz shah Kotla was also built by him. The gateway of Firozshah Kottla is Khooni Darwaza or blood-stained gate. It was constructed by Shersha Suri.
- He transplanted two Ashokan Pillars to Firozabad.
- He is the author of Fatuhat -i- Firozshahi
- After Firozshah Tughlaq Muhammed Shah Tughlaq or Naziruddin Muhammed came to the throne.
- It was during the period of his reign that Timur the Lame or Tamerlain a Turkish conqueror of the Tartar tribe from Samarkhand attacked India in 1398.
- Timur appointed Khizr Khan, the governor of Multan his authority in India.
Sayyid Dynasty (1414 - 1451):
- Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizr Khan in 1414.
- Last Sayyid Sulthan was Alauddin Alamshah or Shah Alam I. He was killed by Bahalol Lodhi in 1451.
Other rulers of the Sayyid Dynasty
- Mubarak Shah (1421-1434)
- Muhammad Shah (1434-1443)
- Alam Shah (1443-1451)
- Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526)
Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526)
Bahlol Lodhi (1451-1488)
- He founded the Lodhi dynasty by usurping the throne from the last of the Sayyid rulers.
- Bahlol belonged to the Shahu Khel clan of the Lodhi Pashtun tribe.
Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517)
- He was the son of Bahlol Lodhi.
- In 1504, he founded the city of Agra and made it his capital.
- He introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandari
(Sikandar's yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526 AD)
- He was the last king of the Lodhi dynasty and the last Sultan of Delhi.
- He was the son of Sikandar Lodhi.
- He was defeated and killed by Babur in the first battle of Panipat in 1526 AD
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