A Need for Teaching Aids:
1) Proper use of teaching aids helps to retain concepts permanently.
2) Students can learn better when they are motivated properly through different teaching aids.
3) Teaching aids develop the proper image when the students see, hear taste and smell properly.
4) Teaching aids provide a complete example of conceptual thinking.
5) The teaching aids create an environment of interest for the students.
6) Teaching aids provide direct experience to the students.
Types of Teaching Aids:
There are many aids available these days. We may classify these aids as follows-
1) Visual Aids: The aids which use a sense of vision are called Visual Aids. For example actual objects, models, pictures, charts, maps, flashcards, flannel boards, bulletin boards, chalkboards, overhead projectors, slides etc.
2) Audio Aids: The aids that involve the sense of hearing are called Audio aids. For example- radio, tape recorder, gramophone etc.
3) Audio-Visual Aids: The aids which involve the sense of vision as well as hearing are called Audio-Visual aids. For example television, film projector, film strips etc.
(1) Visual Aids:
These aids involve the use of the sense of hearing. These aids are also called audiology aids such as charts, models, slides, maps etc.
(b) Charts, Graphs, Diagrams, Models
Charts, graphs, diagrams, and models play a very important role in science teaching. With the help of the charts, the teacher can explain the various functions, topics, and information on science with ease. They help in creating a suitable subject atmosphere in the classroom and clarifying various difficult things.
(c) Film Strip
A film strip contains a series of still pictures of about 24 to 48 frames arranged in a sequence. Knowledge of various functions, discoveries and other information related to science can be imparted with the help of film strips. It may be used for large groups or individualized instruction, for introducing a unit or for teaching a lesson.
Epidiascope is a combination of episcope and diascope. With the epidiascope in the epi-position, flat opaque objects can be projected. In epidiascope, one 1000 watts lamp or one 500 watts lamp or two 500 lamps are used. There is a powerful blower cooling the lamp and directing a blast of air on the opaque object to be projected.
(2) Audio Aids:
By the use of this type of aid, the student gains knowledge through hearing. The use of audio aid students listen to the discoveries and scientific inventions and life histories of scientists and gain knowledge.
Different types of educational programs are broadcasted through all Indian Radio. Talks of subject experts on some specific topics are also presented on the radio. Thus, these devices can effectively be used as teaching aid.
Sound recording and playback equipment play an important role in a well-rounded teaching program. Many audio experiences that contribute to student growth and development are the result of proper utilization of equipment that serves a variety of purposes at all ages and levels of learning the specific use of the recording and playback equipment should be determined by the individual instructor.
(c) Wire Recorder
In this recorder, a sound may be recorded on a wire approximately five-thousandths of an inch in diameter. The most commonly used spools are the hour, % hour and one-hour sizes. One of the outstanding advantages of wire recording is that it will not only play back the recording as frequently as desired but it may also be used over and over again for other programmes simply by ‘erasing’ the previous program. The wire spools are compact and may easily be stored for future use.
(3) Audio-Visual Aids:
In the use of these aids, the eyes and ears work together. The child sees with his eyes and listens with his ears and tries to memorize the teaching points. The knowledge bestowed by these aids should have the quality of being precise, real and comprehensible. In the absence of these the audio-visual aids lose their usefulness. In other words, 'these aids involve the use of the sense of hearing and seeing.'
For example-Television, Film, Drama etc.
For a science teacher, it is essential to use audio-visual aid. These teaching aids are useful to understand the formulas, theories, concepts, and relations in easy ways. With the help of these teaching aids, the teacher improves his/her teaching methods.
Audio-visual aids are essential because "The thing which I hear, I may forget. The thing which I see, I may remember" Hence audio-visual aids are those or tools devices by the use of which communication of ideas between persons and groups in various teaching-training situations is helped.
According to Crow & Crow, "Audio-visual aids allow learners to benefit from vicarious experiences with people events, objects and cause, and effects relationships.”
Need and Importance of Audio-Visual Aids:
- The use of audio-visual aids enables the teachers to follow the maxims of teaching as, concrete to abstract, know to unknown and learning by doing.
- It develops a scientific attitude in the students.
- It creates interest in the students.
- It makes the teaching-learning process simple and interesting.
- Audio-visual aids promote self-learning and constructiveness in the
- Many visual aids offer opportunities for students to handle and manipulate things.
- They develop curiosity towards an exploration of various subjects
Thus, teaching aids influence the minds of the learners through their senses.
A principle for Selection of Teaching Aids:
- The principle of Learner-Centered -Before the selection of teaching aid, it should keep in mind that what is the age, interest, and ability of the child. After it uses the teaching aid. These teaching aids help understand the concept or subject matter.
- The principle of Interest and Motivation- Interest and motivation are the centre point of any teaching-learning process. The main aim of hardware and software teaching aids is to create an environment which creates interest, curiosity, and ability in the students.
- A principle of Realization of Objectives- In this principle the selection of hardware and software teaching aids in that sense by which we develop the cognitive, understanding, skills and practice in the students.
- A principle of Availability of Resources- teaching aids is not experienced economically. The size of this should be according to the size of a room. They should be easily portable and their language should be easy and it should be according to the local needs of the students
- It should be reliable and valid.
- It should be practicable.
- It should be simple because unnecessary material tends to confuse the topic.
- It should not be too expensive.
So, there are so many useful teaching-learning materials to make learning easier and more understandable. A teacher needs to choose the relevant teaching aid to teach effectively.
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