Economic survey 2015-16 observed that Indian agriculture had been a victim of its own past success, especially the Green revolution. The survey suggested the integral and sustainable development of the agriculture sector, which was later called the Rainbow Revolution. It indicates various farm practices such as:
1. Green Revolution (Food grains)
Green Revolution means the application of agronomics or adoption of modern methods and technologies such as the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers to increase food grain productivity.
2. White Revolution (Milk)
- Operation Flood was launched on 13 January 1970. It was the world's largest dairy development program and a landmark project of India's National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).
- Operation flood led to the White revolution, which created Milk grids linking producers to consumers. It transformed India from a milk deficient nation into the world's largest milk producer, surpassing the United States of America in 1998. Milk production in India was about 22.29 per cent of global output in 2018.
- Impact of White Revolution:
- Increased milk production
- Augmented rural incomes
- Ensured fair prices for consumers
3. Yellow Revolution (Oilseeds)
- Yellow revolution is targeted at oilseeds cultivation to make India self-sustainable in edible oil production.
- Sam Pitroda is called the Father of Yellow revolution.
- Prime Minister Modi appealed the North-East States to take up oil palm cultivation in a big way to support the Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative thereby reducing the imports of Palm oil (India spends Rs. 70, 000 Cr.) and making India self-sufficient in edible oils.
4. Blue Revolution (Fisheries)
- Blue Revolution or Neel Kranti Mission envisions Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries.
- It focuses on focuses mainly on increasing fisheries production and productivity from aquaculture and fisheries resources, both inland and marine.
5. Golden Revolution (Fruits)
- Nirpakh Tutaj was called Father of the father of Gold Revolution in India.
- Golden Revolution focused on increasing production of honey and horticulture, especially fruits and vegetables between 1991 and 2003.
6. Silver Revolution (Eggs)
- Indira Gandhi is the mother of Silver Revolution.
- It focussed on improving Egg Production in India.
7. Round Revolution (Potato)
- Round Revolution is focused on increasing Potato production.
8. Pink Revolution (Meat)
- Pink revolution is a technological revolution to modernise the poultry and meat processing sector.
9. Grey Revolution (Fertilizers)
- Grey Revolution is associated with increased fertilizer production.
- It seeks to overcome the drawbacks of the green revolutions by emphasising climate-smart agriculture.
Thus, the concept of Rainbow revolution is an integrated development of crop cultivation, horticulture, forestry, fishery, poultry, animal husbandry and food processing industry.