Quick Revision Series for Prelims 2021: Tribal Revolts in India

By Aman|Updated : July 21st, 2021

This series is all you need to clear UPSC prelims. A single source where we provide concise content to help you revise important terms quickly for UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam 2021 and EPFO exam 2021.

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Table of Content

Tribal Revolts in India

The major Causes for such tribal uprisings were:

  1. Exploitative land Revenue Policies and Expansion of agriculture and plantation activities on forested land by outsider non-tribal population in areas inhabited by the tribal population.
  2. Works of numerous Christian missionaries were looked with suspicion and as interference in social-economic customs of tribal population.
  3. Due to increased demand for wood for larger construction projects like the expansion of Railways various Forest Acts were passed that established complete Government monopoly over forested lands of tribal areas.
  4. The uprisings by the north-eastern tribal groups were usually reactions against outsiders (dikus), zamindars and rulers, the support provided to the latter by the British administration.
  5. Due to the induction of notion of the private property now the land could be bought, sold or mortgaged which led to the loss of land by the tribals.
  1. Major tribal revolts

Years

Uprising

Facts related to the uprising

1778

Pahriyas rebellion

Place: Rajmahal Hills

Led by: martial Pahariyas

Cause: against the British expansion on their lands

1776

Chuar uprising

Place: Bengal

Led by: Chuar aboriginal tribesmen

Cause: economic privatization by the British

1831

Kol uprising

Place: Chotanagpur

Led by: Buddho Bhagat

Cause: British rule expansion and land transfers

1827-1831

Ho and Munda uprising

Place: Singhbhum and Chotanagpur

Led by: Raja Parahat and others

Cause: British expansion and revenue policy

1890s-1900s

Later Munda and Ulugulan uprising

Place: Ranchi and Chotanagpur

Led by: Birsa Munda

Cause: against feudal and zamindari system and exploitations by money lenders, denial of their rights over forested areas.

1855-56

Santhal rebellion

Place: Bihar

Led by: Sido and Kanhu

Causes:

· Against feudal and zamindari system and exploitations by money lenders. It later turned out Anti-British and was suppressed.

· Among the numerous tribal revolts, the Santhal uprising was the most remarkable one. When the    Permanent Settlement was introduced in Bengal in 1793, the Santhals were employed as laborers with the  promise of wages or rent-free lands. However, they were forced to become agricultural surfs, exploited at will.

1837-56

Kandh uprising

Place: from Tamil Nadu to Bengal

Led by: Chakra Bisoi

Cause: Interference in tribal customs and imposition of new taxes.

1860s

Naikada Movement

Place: M.P. and Gujrat

Cause: against British and caste Hindus.

1870s

Kharwar rebellion

Place: Bihar

Cause: against revenue settlement activities.

1817-19 & 1913

Bhil revolts

Place: regions of Western Ghats

Cause: against company rule and to form Bhil Raj.

1967-68;1891-93

Bhuyan and Juang rebellion

Place: Kheonjhar,Orissa

Led by: Ratna Nayak and Dharni Dhar Nayak

Cause: Policy of annexation

1880s

Koya revolts

Place: Godavari region of Andhra Pradesh

Leader: Raja Anantayyar

Cause: against feudal and zamindari system and exploitations by money lenders, denial of their rights over forested areas.

1910

Bastar revolt

Place: Jagdalpur area

Cause: New feudal and forest levies.

1914-15

Tana Bhagat movement

Place: Chhota Nagpur area

Led by: Jatra Bhagat and Balram Bhagat.

Cause: against interference of outsiders, began as Sanskritization movement.

1916-1924

Rampa revolts

Place: Andhra Pradesh region

Leader: Alluri Sitarama Raju

Cause: Interference in tribal customs and imposition of new taxes.

1920 onwards

Jharkhand uprising

Places: Chhotanagpur region; parts of Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal.

Adivasi Mahasabha was formed in 1937.

1920s-1930s

Forest Satyagrahas

Led by: By Chenchu tribals & by Karwars

Cause:

· British interference in internal affairs of tribal areas

· British administrative innovations

· Excessive land assessments

1940s

Gond uprising

· To bring together the believers of Gond dharma.

  1. North-East Frontier Tribal Uprisings

Years

Uprising

Facts

1823-33

Ahom’s’ revolt

Place: Assam

Cause: against non-fulfilment of the pledges of the British after the Burmese War.

Result:

· The British had pledged to withdraw after the first Burmese War(1824-26) from Assam but in contrast, the British attempted to incorporate the Ahoms territories in the company’s dominion after the war.

· This initiated a rebellion in 1828 under the leadership of Gomdhar Konwar.

· Finally, the company decided to follow a conciliatory policy and handed over upper Assam to Maharaja Purandar Singh Narendra and parts of the kingdom was restored to the Assamese king.

1830s

Khasi’s revolt

Place: Hilly regions of Meghalaya

Leader: Nunklow ruler Tirath Singh

Cause: against the occupation of hilly regions.

Result:

· Due to the compulsory enlistment of labourers for road construction led the Khasis to revolt under the leadership of Tirath Singh, a Khasi chief. The Garos joined them.

· The long and harassing warfare with Khasis continued for four years and was finally suppressed in early 1833

1930s

Singhpho’s rebellion

Place: Assam

Cause: British interference in internal affairs of tribal areas and administrative innovations along with Excessive land assessments.

1917-19

Kuki’s revolt

Place: Manipur

Cause: aginst  Britsih labour recruitment policies during WW1.

1920s

Zeliangsong Movement

Place: Manipur

Led by: Zemi and Liangmei tribes

Cause: British failed to protect these tribes during Kuki’s violence.

1905-31

Naga Movement

Place: Manipur

Led by: Jadonang

It was against British rule and about setting up of a Naga Raj.

1930s

Hereka Cult

Place: Manipur

Led by: Rani Gaidinliu

As a result of this movement, Kabui Naga Association was formed in 1946

 

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AmanAmanMember since Sep 2017
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Roshni Patle

Roshni PatleJul 21, 2021

Please provide in hindi
Kanchan Kumari
Sir hindi kar dijye
Kanchan Kumari
Sir hindi kar dijye

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