Model Answers- Answer Writing Practice- Day 5

By BYJU'S IAS|Updated : July 2nd, 2022

BYJU'S Exam Prep IAS Target Mains 2022 Program is meant for UPSC CSE 2022 aspirants to help them revise the entire Mains syllabus and practice answer writing questions from every module. Upload your answers in the comment section. When uploading images, place all your images in a single comment for faster feedback on answers. All answers uploaded between 10 AM to 6 PM would be given a detailed feedback within 1 hour. 

Day 5: Model Answers for Mains Questions posted on 1st July

1. Since India’s independence, women have been at the forefront of environmental, political and social movements in the country. Elaborate.


India’s independence movement got a shot in the arm due to a large scale participation of women who resonated with the ideals of Gandhian leadership and social reforms, which were aimed at forming an egalitarian society. Fortunately for the country, even post our independence, women from different sections of the society continued to play a vital role by taking an active part in environmental, political and social grassroots movements.

Main Body

Environmental Movements: Almost every successful environment protection movement in India has seen large scale participation from the women community. Significant movements such as Chipko, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Navdanya, etc. have all been women-led and have also protected the local ecological rights and environment. Not just this, these movements have also inspired environmental movements in other parts of the world, a prime example of which can be seen in the form of Greta Thunberg and her movement. It is also relevant to understand that climate change impacts women much more disproportionately, as pointed out by the United Nations. 

Political Movements: Although the constituent assembly ensured that women get equal political rights in the country in the form of Universal Adult Franchise under article 326, women have largely played a subordinate role in the Indian politics. However, there are multiple examples of women picking up the baton and matching their male counterparts in many political movements such as the famous JP movement anti-price rise movement of 1973-75, and multiple other tribal and peasant movements. More recently, large scale women participation was also witnessed in the aftermath of the Nirbhaya gang rape and murder case in Delhi, which led to the amendment in the Juvenile Justice law in the country.

Social movements: From times immemorial, women have had to face societal injustice in the country, thus preparing them to fight against the hierarchy in Indian society. As a result, women started struggles against gender discrimination, domestic violence, alcoholism, rapes, and patriarchal social attitudes across the country. Multiple women led organizations have led these movements, such as Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), Naga Mothers Association, Saheli, etc. Lesser known organizations such as MAKAAM (Mahila Kisan Adhikaar Manch) have also been fighting for the rights of female farmers.


The role played by women in transforming India’s environmental, political and social landscape is undisputed. Apart from the well known and recognized women movements, there are thousands of other lesser known movements, doing their job silently, to ensure that India becomes the promised land for its women. 


2. There has been an evident decline in the concept of family as an institution in India. Shed light on the factors responsible for this decline.


In the Indian psyche, family has always been an institution by itself and a strong symbol of India’s culture which goes back to the ancient times. However, the past decades have witnessed a drastic change in this institution, leading to a transition from the norm of joint families to an increased prevalence of nuclear families. 

Main Body 

Decline of family as an institution: 21st century witnessed an increased level of commercialization of the economy, leading to the origin of a modern state where the concept of family has changed drastically as compared to the earlier decades. We have witnessed much more urbanization which is still going on at a rapid pace, leading to separation of children from the elders and resulting in the eventual disintegration of family-based support systems. This decline in the family system has been accompanied by various other issues, including the rise in mental health issues, due to lack of personal connections. On the contrary, there have been some desired consequences as well such as a decreased rate of reproduction, increased participation of females in the workforce, etc. 

Factors responsible for such change:

Declining rate of Fertility: With increased levels of education, the focus has shifted from quantity to quality. An increasing number of couples are aspiring to provide a better standard to living to their children than what they had. This is leading to the pruning of the family tree and the concept of large family get togethers is reducing. 

No fixed habitation: Professional careers take priority over most other things today. As per a report by the Centre for Development Studies, Kerela, as of 2020, roughly half of India is living in a place where it wasn’t born. Thus, frequent movement people is leading to reduction in the size of families and decline in the number of joint families.

Modernistic value: The aspirations of today’s generation is far more focussed on career and professional growth and family has taken a backseat in most cases. 

Individualism over collectivism: This has led to assertion of rights and freedom of choices, where preference is given to an individual more trying to arrive at a common family decision. 

High divorce rates: A lot of reasons have resulted in increasing divorce rates in the country, including individual freedom, anti-social behaviour, availability of more information, influence of western culture, etc., which has further brought down the concept of family as an institution. 

Parochial attitude: Those earning more within a joint family setup may have a feeling of dissatisfaction over being forced to contribute more, and might favour a split in the family. 

Emerging agency: There are a lot of options available to ensure social security in the society, which are trying to act as an alternatives to family support. For instance, there has been a mushrooming of creches, old age homes, etc. which have given an option to those to wish to move out of the family structure. 


Family, as a unit of society, has always been very fluid and facing constant changes. The modern society is now witnessing new types of families such as same-sex couples, live-in relations, single-parent households, etc. which may not fit into the orthodox definition of family as an institution but still provide the kind of support you except from within the family.


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