World of Books:
- In the area of language and literature, Indian culture is exceptional. Some of the best-known epics have been written in this era.
- It is not easy to identify literature like the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Bhagavad Gita in any other civilization.
- The Jatakas, the Tripitakas and the Buddhist Dipvamsa and Mahavamsa, the Jain Angas, and the Tamil Sangam literature were also present.
- The Puranas were written between the 3rd and 10th centuries. Thus these are the early Hindu texts.
- There are 18 Puranas which are further divided into five sections.
- It is known as the record of the creation of the world and kings.
- Historically, the fifth division is important because it includes the traditions of the dynasties of ancient Indian rulers. It is an important Purana in Indian religious literature.
- The other major Puranas are Vayu, Vishnu, and Matsya Purana. These give us valuable information about gods and goddesses such as Vishnu, Shiva, Durga and Parvati. These also provide explanations of how they were worshipped.
- The two epics — the Ramayana and the Mahabharata — report the cultural, economic, and religious characteristics of the Epic Period of the people. Both had long been popular and up-to-date as well.
- Mahabharata speaks about the battle between Kauravas and Pandavas. It was written by a sage known as Vyas. The narrative of the Mahabharata was ancient, written around 1500 years ago. The Bhagavad Gita, an important source of knowledge, is part of the Mahabharata.
- The Ramayana of Valmiki relates to Rama, who had to struggle to get his wife back from evil Ravana.
- Mahabharata and Ramayana, both have various versions. These epics are very popular among people in different regions of the Indian subcontinent.
The Buddhist and Jain Text
- Buddhist Tripitakas and Jatakas and Jainism Angas provide vital information to us.
- They help to recreate ancient India's history. Both the scriptures of both religions have been composed in Sanskrit and Prakrit.
- Jatakas tales were shown in places such as Ajanta mostly on stupa railings and paintings.
- Good quality Sanskrit literature was produced from the second century AD to the fifth century AD, particularly under the Gupta rulers.
- Kalidasa, the greatest poet, and dramatist enriched the Sanskrit language. His works are the jewels of literature in Sanskrit, Abhijnana Shakuntalam, and Vikramorvashi.
- Another great author was Vishkhadatta, who wrote Mudra Rakshasa, and Amar Singh, who wrote Mrichhakatikam, Amarakosha, and Shudraka. Panchatantra has also been published during this period. Panchatantra is a series of children's stories about lessons with important moral assumptions.
- Tamil, among the literary languages spoken, is the oldest language in South India.
- The earliest origin of Tamil literature is found in Sangam literature.
- Around 1,800 years ago Llango wrote the famous Tamil epic, the Silappadikaram.
- Sattanar wrote another Tamil epic, Manimekalai, around 1,400 years ago. Which explains the tale of the daughter.
Art and Architecture
- Ancient India had reached impressive heights in fine arts.
- A notable example of metallurgy is the Pradakshina Trail and the Sanchi Stupa in the field of architecture, the Ashoka stone pillars and the iron pillar in Mehrauli.
- The houses built thousands of years ago were made of brick and stone. The fact that they are still strong demonstrates longevity.
- Kings and queens most likely spent their treasury money to pay for these impressive structures to the craftsmen who served. As devotees visited the temple or the stupa, they often brought gifts with them.
Paintings and Science:
- The paintings of this era are to be found in the caves of Ajanta and Ellora.
- The description was bright and made of plant and mineral colours.
- The mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata wrote a Sanskrit book known as the Aryabhatiyam during that period. He assumed the earth's rotation caused day and night on his axis. He also set up a scientific explanation of eclipses and found a way to calculate a circle's diameter.
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