What is Crowd Disaster Management?

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Jun 3, 2022, 9:16

In the light of frequent stampedes at group gathering areas, including religious sites, and typically ad-hoc answers to those, the NDMA (National Disaster Management Authority) had drafted a Suggestive framework for preparing a crowd management plan for venues and events of mass gathering.

Crowd Disaster Management refers to the substantiated and systematic planning and the guidance given to the orderly progress of occurrences where large crowds of people gather in a common area. As an element of crowd management, steps can be taken to control or restrict the conduct of groups of people. This article aims to shed more light on Crowd Disaster Management to help you prepare for your UPSC mains and prelims examination.

What is Crowd Disaster?

Even when crowd disasters are not a recent phenomenon, they were supposed to be of localized nature and hence were not given their expected prominence. Nevertheless, with the ever-rising Indian population, large groups gathering at locations such as religious destinations, shopping malls, railway stations etc., might result in a mishap. Therefore, creating a national policy to manage this crowd disaster has become imperative.

Causes of Crowd Disaster

Structural failures: The destruction of the interim facility, vertical stairs, narrow building because of unlawful structures, hawkers and parking, etc.

Electric/Fire Disasters: Generally from the makeshift kitchens in public places, improper use of firecrackers or incorrect electrical wiring during the occasion.

Crowd Behavior: Minimizing the size of the mass, lack of coordination with management, overselling of the tickets, mass panicking by sudden rush or rumours to get celebrity autographs or freebies.

Inadequate Security: Insufficient deployment of safety team or security agencies taking drastic actions like firing teargas leading to in-crowd panic.

Lack of coordination among administrative agencies: Lack of coordination between administrative agencies like fire service, police, shrine management, etc.

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NDMA Guidelines for Crowd Disaster Management

Below are some guidelines issued by NDMA (National Disaster Management Agency) for Crowd Disaster Management.

  1. Understanding visitors
  2. Understanding stakeholders
  3. Crowd Management approaches
    • Capacity planning
    • Understanding Crowd behaviour
    • Crowd disaster process
    • Crowd control
    • Stakeholder approach
  4. Risk estimation and preparedness
    • Determine threats or causes
    • Risk assessment
    • Planning
    • Develop a course of action
  5. Information dissemination and management
  6. Security and safety measures
  7. Medical Emergency Services
Important UPSC Topics
IAS ExamUPSC Exam
UPSC Exam PatternIAS Age Limit
UPSC BooksUPSC Syllabus in Hindi
UPSC Admit CardUPSC Prelims
IAS SyllabusUPSC Question Paper
UPSC Cut OffUPSC Mains

Detailed Guidelines Issued by NDMA on Crowd Disaster Management

For Law Enforcement and Administrative Agencies

  • The initial stage of effective crowd administration is to control vehicular traffic in neighbourhoods encompassing the pandals and Dussehra grounds to offer more room for pedestrians.
  • The law enforcement agencies must also address unlawful parking and makeshift eating into pedestrian spaces.

For Organizers

  • The organizers must put accurate route maps on strategic points for reaching the public place and emergency exit way.
  • Barricading to guarantee the seamless movement of people in a queue is key to maintaining a burgeoning group.
  • CCTV and security cameras to watch the action and administration presence to decrease the risk of snatching and other minor offences should also be on the organizers' strategy.
  • Organizers should also guarantee official power use, fire security extinguishers and other arrangements meeting security procedures to deal with fire-related occurrences.

For Crowd Participants

  • Remaining familiarized with exit and entrance routes, following instructions, and staying calm will help prevent stampede-like problems.
  • If a stampede happens, guard your chest by putting your hands like a fighter and keep going in the crowd's direction.
  • Stay alert to empty areas and move transversely wherever the crowd gets thinner. Stay away from fences, barriers or bottlenecks such as entrances.
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FAQs on Crowd Disaster Management

Q.1. What is Crowd Disaster Management?

Crowd Disaster Management refers to the substantiated and systematic planning and the guidance given to the orderly progress of occurrences where large crowds of people gather in a common area.

Q.2. What are the Crowd Disaster Management guidelines issued by NDMA?

The guidelines issued by NDMA for Crowd Disaster Management are as follows -

  • Understanding visitors
  • Understanding stakeholders
  • Crowd Management approaches
  • Capacity planning
  • Understanding Crowd behaviour
  • Crowd disaster process
  • Crowd control
  • Stakeholder approach
  • Risk estimation and preparedness
  • Determine threats or causes
  • Risk assessment
  • Planning
  • Develop a course of action

Q.3. What are the Crowd Disaster Management strategies for law enforcement agencies?

The Crowd Disaster Management strategies for law enforcement agencies are -

  • The initial stage of effective crowd administration is to control vehicular traffic in neighbourhoods encompassing the pandals and Dussehra grounds to offer more room for pedestrians.
  • The law enforcement agencies must also address unlawful parking and makeshift eating into pedestrian spaces.

Q.4. What are the Crowd Disaster Management strategies for crowd participants?

The Crowd Disaster Management strategies for crowd participants are -

  • Remaining familiarized with exit and entrance routes, following instructions, and staying calm will help prevent stampede-like problems.
  • If a stampede happens, guard your chest by putting your hands like a fighter and keep going in the crowd's direction.