The Chinese Civil War was fought from 1 August 1927 until 7 December 1949 between forces loyal towards the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the government, led by Kuomintang of the Republic of China. The Chinese Civil War resulted in two separate de-facto states, the Republic of China (RoC) in the Taiwan region and the People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China.
The Chinese Civil War represents the difference in ideologies between the loyalists of both parties. The war continued on full scale and intermittently at different times before the cessation of complete military hostility in 1950. We have shared further details about this war here.
Chinese Civil War - Summary
The Chinese Civil War is an important period in history as it led to the establishment of the Communist regime in China. Starting in 1927 with armed peasants and former NRA soldiers seeking to overthrow the government by force, the war ended after two decades. The Chinese Civil War also involved the role of Japanese soldiers, who came to invade the region.
Eventually, the Japanese surrendered and withdrew from the mainland region. The leader of the Communists in the Chinese Civil War was Mao Zedong, who believed in liberating the working class and establishing them as the ruling party.
China War - History
The history of the Chinese War can be traced back to August 1927, when the Communists first expressed their objective to overthrow the existing government by force.
- The Kuomintang-led government operated behind a fleet of trained army personnel and was run by an officer named 'Chiang Kai-Shek.'
- As the leading face of the party, he started a war against the north, popular as the 'Northern Expedition.' Eventually, Chiang turned against communism for his fear of a social revolution.
- What started subsequently in 1927 was the destruction of the Communists, and by the 1930s, Chiang had become the leader of national China even though the Chinese Civil War remained far from over.
- In time, the Japanese empire came to invade the region, which prompted the second Sino- Japanese war.
- Due to this, both the Communists and the Kuomintang were forced to ally against the imperial army. While the former favoured guerrilla warfare, the latter was ready to face the Japanese in open battle.
- Following this, war once again broke out between the two forces. The Chinese Civil War finally came to an end after the defeat of the nationalists.
- The Kuomintang finally set up a novel government in the Taiwan region and named it the Republic of China.
- After the Chinese Civil War, the Communists set up the People's Republic of China.
Chinese Civil War - Timeline
- 1 August 1927: The Communist Party launches an uprising against the Nationalist government, creating the Red Army.
- 7 August 1927: CCP announced that its objective was to overthrow the existing government and seize political power.
- 14 August 1927: The Wuhan and Kuomintang faction allied against the CCP.
- Later, the Chinese Civil War heightened with former National Revolutionary Army (NRA) soldiers and armed peasants taking control of several parts of Southern China.
- September 1927: Mao Zedong led the Autumn Harvest Uprising, an unsuccessful insurrection.
- 11 December 1927: The CCP led the Guangzhou Uprising, establishing a soviet that was overthrown two days later by a counter-attack.
- 16 December 1927: The Ten Year Chinese Civil War started, ending with the establishment of the Communist regime.
Chinese Civil War - Consequences
The consequences of the Chinese Civil War would include the emergence of a Communist China, which played a significant role in the Cold war. The Republic of China, a founding member of the United Nations, would be expelled, and the People's Republic of China would be admitted to the United Nations on 25th October 1971. Before the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China was also one of the five permanent members of the United Nations security council.
The Chinese Civil War was a two-decade-long struggle between the Nationalists and Communists in China. The ultimate cost of the war was immense. As per the official numbers calculated by the Communists, more than 1.5 million people were left dead and wounded. More than 5 million civilians also died due to combat, diseases, and famine in the Chinese Civil War.
FAQs on the Chinese Civil War
Q1. Who won the Chinese Civil War?
The Chinese Communist Party (CPC) won the Chinese Civil War in 1949. After decades of intermittent war, the CCP gained complete control of the mainland region in China in 1949. The CCP established the People's Republic of China (PRC) after the Chinese Civil War.
Q2. When did the Chinese Civil War happen?
The Chinese Civil War happened between 1927 to 1949. This war was fought between forces loyal towards the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the government, led by Kuomintang of the Republic of China. The Chinese Civil War led to the establishment of the Communist regime in China.
Q3. How did the Communist Party win the Chinese Civil War?
The Communist Party won the Chinese Civil War with the armed forces consisting of peasants and National Revolutionary Army soldiers. Led by Mao Zedong, the Red Army of Communists seized more and more parts of China until they formally established the government.
Q4. Who fought the Chinese Civil War?
The Chinese Civil War, which started in 1927, was fought between the communist party in China and the Nationalists, who were called the Kuomintang. The Chinese Civil War was fought because the Communists wanted to seize political power and overthrow the government.
Q5. What were the results of the Chinese Civil War?
After their victory, the Communist Party of China took control of the mainland region in China and the Hainan province. The People's republic of China was established in the mainland China region, and the government of the Republic of China was evacuated to the island of Taiwan.
Q6. How did the Nationalist Party lose the Chinese Civil War?
After the war with Japan, the Nationalist government was essentially destroyed in 1945. It was no longer a place to fight with the Communists. At the same time, the Communists were seizing control over more and more regions of mainland China, eventually establishing political dominance.