Chinese Civil War

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Mar 25, 2022, 9:20

The Chinese Civil War was fought between two forces, each loyal towards the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the government led by Kuomintang of the Republic of China. The war had started in August 1927, eventually resulting in two separate de-facto states, namely the Republic of China (RoC) in the Taiwan region and the People's Republic of China (PRC), which is mainland China.

The Chinese Civil War represents the difference in ideologies between the loyalists of both parties. The war continued on full scale and intermittently at different times before cessation of complete military hostility in 1950.

Outbreak Of The Chinese Civil War

The Kuomintang operated behind a fleet of trained army personnel and was run by an officer named 'Chiang Kai-Shek.' As the leading face of the party, he started a war against the north, popular as the 'Northern Expedition.' Due to this, any parts of China could be consolidated under the rule of a single regime, which was based out of the capital in Nanking. Eventually, Chiang turned against communism for his fear of a social revolution.

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What started subsequently in 1927 was the destruction of the Communists, and by the 1930s, Chiang had become the leader of national China even though the civil war remained far from over. In time, the Japanese empire came to invade the region, which prompted the second Sino- Japanese war. Due to this, both the Communists and the Kuomintang were forced to ally against the imperial army. While the former favoured guerrilla warfare, the latter was ready to face the Japanese in open battle. Both suffered some losses, but ultimately, the Japanese surrendered and withdrew from the mainland region.

Following this, war once again broke out between the two forces. The Chinese Civil War finally came to an end after the defeat of the nationalists. The Kuomintang finally set up a novel government in the Taiwan region and named it the Republic of China. The Communists set up the People's Republic of China.

International Implication of the Chinese Civil War

The consequences of the Chinese Civil War would include the emergence of a Communist China, which played a significant role in the Cold war. The Republic of China, a founding member of the United Nations, would be expelled, and the People's Republic of China would be admitted to the United Nations on 25th October 1971. Before this, the Republic of China was also one of the five permanent members of the United Nations' security council.

The Chinese Civil War was a two-decade-long struggle between the Nationalists and Communists in China. The ultimate cost of the war was immense. As per the official numbers calculated by the Communists, more than 1.5 million people were left dead and wounded. More than 5 million civilians also died due to combat, diseases, and famine.

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FAQs on Chinese Civil War

Q.1. Who were the parties to the Chinese Civil War?

The Chinese Civil War, which started in 1927, was fought between the communist party in China and the Nationalists, who were called the Kuomintang.

Q.2. Who was the ultimate winning party after the Chinese Civil War?

The Chinese Civil War was ultimately won by the Chinese Communist Party (CPC). In the year 1949, they gained complete control of the mainland region in China, which was established by the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Q.3. What were the territorial changes that occurred in China after the victory of the Chinese Communist Party after the Chinese Civil War?

After their victory, the Communist Party of China took control of the mainland region in China and the Hainan province. The People's republic of China was established in the mainland China region, and the government of the Republic of China was evacuated to the island of Taiwan.

Q.4. What was the reason for the defeat of the Nationalist Party in the Chinese Civil War?

After the war with Japan, the Nationalist government was essentially destroyed in 1945. It was no longer at a place to fight with the Communists.