A classroom consists of a group of children and a teacher in which the teaching process is carried on. Here the children learn from the teacher or can also say that a classroom is a learning area. Classrooms are found from preschools to universities. Here the learning takes place without any interruption by the external environment.
Objectives of Classrooms:
Following are the objectives of the classroom:
- The classroom environment develops a sense of inclusion among learners.
- The classroom develops life skills among learners.
- Classrooms help in the development of skills of social co-existence among learners.
- Classrooms help in preparing responsible citizens for the future.
The classroom process includes the thinking, feelings, commitments, and actions of teachers and students within the classroom or learning situation as well as the interaction patterns and descriptions of the learning environment that results from those interactions.
Sub-categories of classroom process:
The classroom process can be divided into three basic subcategories:
It consists of all the behaviour a teacher would make in the classroom. They are:
- Planning: Planning consists of all the activities a teacher might carry out to get ready to interact with the students in the classroom
- Instruction: Instruction is the purposeful direction of the learning process. It guides students learning.
- Management: Management controls student behaviour in the following ways:
- Use of positive reinforcement
- Cues and corrective feedback
- Co-operative learning activities
- Higher order questioning
- Use of advanced organizers
It includes all the actions a student would make in the classroom. They include a very important variable called Academic learning time. Academic Learning Time is the number of times students is successfully covering content that will be tested subsequently.
Students' behaviour consists of three separate variables. They are:
Content overlap: The percentage of content covered on the test, out of what was covered by students.
Engaged time: It is the number of time students is actively involved in the learning process.
Success: It is the extent of time in which students accurately complete the assignments they have been given
Other classroom factors:
Other classroom factors that affect learner achievement are as follows:
- Classroom atmosphere and morale.
- The opportunity is given to students to engage in leadership roles and so on.
- Teachers' classroom behaviour has a direct influence on the student’s classroom behaviour.
- Classroom process variables are the most direct link to measuring student achievement.
Teaching Methods or Techniques:
Some of the teaching methods related to the classroom process are:
- Lecture Method: This teaching method is the oldest and one-way channel of communication of information. In this method, students only listen to the lecture delivered by the teacher.
- Demonstration method: In the demonstration method, a teacher explains the topic by showing an example, proofs, experiments, etc.
- Problem-solving Method: This is the scientific method of searching for information.
- Inquiry method: According to this approach learners are allowed to explore, inquire, and discover new learning.
Approaches to Teaching:
The teaching approach is a set of concepts, beliefs or ideas about the nature of learning which is translated into the classroom. When a teacher has a long-term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal it becomes his strategy. The following types of approaches are as follows:
- Learner-Centred approach: Student-centered learning, also known as learner-centred education, broadly encompasses methods of teaching that shift the focus of instruction from the teacher to the student. This method considers learners as also a source of information.
- Teacher-Centered Approach: It is a teaching method where the teacher is actively involved in teaching while the learners are in a passive, receptive mode listening as the teacher teaches.
- Matter-centered Approach: When subject matter gains primacy over that of the learner, it is called the Subject Matter Centered Approach.
- Teacher-Dominated Approach: In this method teacher is the sole dispenser of information.
- Interactive approach: In this method, students have allowed to interact with the teacher and other students.
- Banking Approach: When the teacher deposits knowledge into the empty minds of students it is known as the Banking approach.
- Integrated approach: Here, the teacher integrates or synthesizes his knowledge from different disciplines in his teaching or learners are too given such opportunity. This is the most suitable approach to teaching.
- Constructivist Approach: In this approach, students are allowed to construct knowledge and meaning out of what they are taught by connecting them to prior experience
- Disciplinal Approach: Here, the teacher limits himself to discussing lessons within the boundary of his subject.
- Collaborative approach: Here group work, teamwork, partnership, and group discussion are welcomed in the teaching process.
- Direct teaching: In this approach, a teacher directly tells or shows or demonstrates what is to be taught.
- Indirect approach: Here, the teacher facilitates the learning process by allowing the learner to be engaged in the learning process by allowing the learner to be engaged in the learning process within his guidance.
- Individualistic Approach: Here, a teacher wants the individual students to work by themselves in a classroom.
Meaning of Learning Activities:
The teaching-learning process for engaging students in a task which can link them with the real world is called as learning activities. Activities during the teaching-learning process are of two types:
Activities inside the classroom:
These are the activities that a teacher employs inside the classroom. They are:
- Verbal question: These are the questions taken up at the end of the topic or the end of one section.
- Case study: In this learning is enabled by comparing and contrasting through concrete examples.
- Co-operative learning: This learning can be done in groups for solving a problem given by the teacher.
- Group processing: In this evaluation of team functioning can be done and also agreeing to change.
- Learning conversation: It demands active listening, skilled, open questioning and positive body language from a learner.
- Relating Theory to Practice and Vice- Versa: This will mostly be for subjects which involve conducting experiments in a laboratory or workshop.
- Modelling: In this learner is exposed to the subject content and the underpinning thinking, working under an expert’s guidance
Activities Outside the Classroom:
Learning Outside the Classroom is the use of places other than the classroom for teaching and learning purposes. These activities are:
- Field Trips
- Sports Events
- Activities related to Music and Drama
Discourse as a Method of Teaching:
Discourse is the language that teachers and students use to communicate with each other in the classroom. Discourse is an order of behaviour and the process of extending an idea into text. Discourse is a live language.
Discourse processes can be created from the text, but one needs perception and intuition to throw light movement that once existed.
Discourse covers three aspects of text interpretation. They are semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic.
Semantic: It is related to its meaning in language or logic.
Syntactic: This aspect is made according to the syntax.
Pragmatic: It is based upon practical consideration rather than theoretical consideration