Heredity:- qualities, characteristics, features genetically transmitted from parents to offspring is called heredity.
Environment:- our surroundings those, directly and indirectly, affect our life e.g.:-family, friends, relative, culture and neighbour.
ROLE OF HEREDITY
1. HEREDITY DETERMINES THE SEX OF THE CHILD:- As there are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the sperms and the ovum. The first twenty-two pairs of chromosomes are called autosomes. The autosomes are responsible for deciding and determining the growth and development of the body.
2. HEREDITY HAS DIRECT LINK WITH THE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:- In genetic difference physical development takes the shape. For example:- Some children have blue eyes other have brown and black eyes. In another way the colour of hairs and skin, shape of the face- round and oval.
3. HEREDITY HAS VAST CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE BIRTH OF TWINS:- The intelligence of identical twins reared together correlate almost 0.90. Twins separated early in childhood also show considerable similarity in their intellectuality, personality and behavioural characteristics. The identical twins reared in different environments correlate almost 0.72, those of fraternal twins reared together correlate almost 0.60 and those of brothers and sisters reared together correlate about 0.50, while siblings reared apart correlate about 0.25.
4. HEREDITY HAS LINKAGE WITH THE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES:- Each and every person has its own (unique) vocal code, speech power, speech modulation, shapes of eyes, the shape of the nose, texture of skin and hair each and every aspect makes an individual distinct from another.
INSIGHTS INTO THE INFLUENCE OF HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT IN AN INDIVIDUAL'S LIFE
Heredity and Environment plays a significant role in an individual's life. Children's generally resemble their parents or forefathers. But there is an end number of cases where children do not resemble their parents. For example:- Intelligent parents have dull children even mentally retarded ones, Handsome parents have ugly children these all are because of hereditary like saying goes Leaders are born not made even vice versa also.
Nature of Heredity:- 1. Physical - size, appearance, the colour of skin, eyes and body shape.
2. Psychological- Intelligence, mental traits and instincts.
Theories of Heredity:-
1.The continuity of the Germ Plasm
2. Galton's Theory of Heredity
3. Mendel's Theory of Heredity
4. Darwin's Theory of Heredity
5.Lamarck's Theory of Heredity
Law's of Heredity:-
1.The Law of Variation
2. The Law of Regression
3. The Law of Transmission of Acquired Traits
4. The Law of Dominance
5. The Law of Segregation
Heredity: Genes and Behaviour:-
We inherit characteristics from our parents in the form of genes. A child at birth possesses a unique combination of genes received from both parents. This inheritance provides a biological sketch of an individual's development. the study of the inheritance of physical and psychological characteristics from ancestors is known as genetics. The child begins life as a single zygote cell (mother's ovum fertilised by the father's sperm). The zygote is a tiny cell with a nucleus in its centre containing chromosomes.
It is the hereditary elements of the body. They are threadlike-paired structures in the nucleus of each cell. The number of chromosomes per nucleus is distinctive and is constant for each living organism. The gametic cells (sperm and ovum) have23 chromosomes but not in pairs. A new generation results from the fusion of a sperm cell and an egg cell. At the time of conception, the organism inherits 46 chromosomes from parents, 23 from the mother and 23 from the father. Each of these chromosomes contains thousands of genes. Chromosomes are composed mainly of a substance called Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). Our genes are composed chiefly of DNA molecules.
Every chromosome stores thousands of genetic commands in the form of genes. These genes contain instructions for the production of specific proteins, which regulates the body's physiological processes and the expression of phenotypic traits. A gene can exist in several different forms. The change of a gene from one form to another is called a mutation.
In order to understand the Influence of the Environment in our day to day life, we will study Urie Bronfenbrenner's Model:-
Urie Bronfenbrenner's emphasises the role of environmental factors in the development of an individual. The model consists of five systems:-
1. Microsystem:- is the immediate environment in which an individual lives. For example- the child directly interacts with social agents- family, peers and teachers
2. Mesosystem:- emphasises the microsystem and widen its horizon of relationships. For example:- how parents relate to the child's teacher.
3. Exosystem:- events in social settings where the child does not participate directly, but they influence the child's experience in the immediate context. For example- the transfer of parents may affect the quality of schooling, medical care and means of entertainment.
4. Macrosystem:- includes culture in which the child lives.
5. Chronosystem:- involves events in the individual's life course and socio-historical circumstances of the time such as the divorce of parents, regular fight among parents.
All these play a major role in the influence of the heredity and environment of the child. As heredity is an internal factor to determine the growth of the child and environment is the external factor to determine the development of the child, both go hand in hand to determine the growth and development of the child.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|
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