Rajasthan State Exam Study Notes: Physiography of Rajasthan

By Brajendra|Updated : March 18th, 2022

The history is not a chronological arrangement of events & incidents only, it is an overall development in the society, its culture and changing socio-economic conditions. The history of human settlement in Rajasthan is almost as old as any other part of India starting from Paleolithic period. A survey of the Banas and its tributaries the Gambhiri, the Viraj, and Wagan has provided evidences that man lived along the banks of these rivers at least 100,000 years ago. In Rajasthan places like Didwana, are among the major centres of Paleolithic period. Excavations at Kalibanga in northern Rajasthan revealed the zenith of Harappan times on the banks of a river, Saraswati. The present day districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar, along with other areas of Jaipur district bordering south Haryana, formed the part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. After that contribution in Medieval period was more than any other part of India. The land of heroes and fighters showed its power in medieval period. Rajputana, Pratiharas were main rulers here. In Modern History, Rajasthan was one of the major battle ground against British Regime. Rajasthan was mainly divided in many princely states, though their rulers didn't join forces with freedom fighters but all subjects of these princely states were major contributors in struggle.

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Physiography of Rajasthan

Location and Expansion

  • Rajasthan state is located in the North-Western part of India.
  • It is located in between 23o3’ to 30o12’ Northern Latitude to 69o29’ to 78o17’ Eastern Longitude.
  • Tropic of Cancer passes from Banswara-Dungarpur district.
  • The western border of the state is an International border (India-Pakistan) which is 1070 Km long.
  • It shares the border with Punjab and Haryana from North and North-east side, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh from Eastern side and Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh from South and South-western border.
  • Area of Rajasthan is 3, 42,239 km2 which is 10.41 % of the total area of the country. Thus, it is the biggest in terms of area.
  • Length of the state from North to South is 826 km whereas its breadth from East to West is 869 km.

Administrative Units

  • After Independence, Unification of Rajasthan completed in 1956.
  • Administratively, the State has been divided into 7 divisions and 33 Districts, comprising 295 Panchayat Samities, 9,891 Village Panchayats, and 43,264 inhabited villages.
  • Following are the seven divisions and district included in it.
  • Jaipur Division: - Jaipur, Dausa, Sikar, Alwar and Jhunjhunu
  • Jodhpur Division: - Jodhpur, Jalore, Pali, Barmer, Sirohi and Jaisalmer
  • Bharatpur Division: - Bharatpur, Dhaulpur, Karauli and Sawai Madhopur
  • Ajmer Division: - Ajmer, Bhilwara, Tonk and Nagaur
  • Kota Division: - Kota, Bundi, Baran and Jhalawara
  • Bikaner Division: - Bikaner, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh and Churu
  • Udaipur Division: - Udaipur, Rajsamand, Dungarpur, Banswara, Chittorgarh and Pratapgarh

Relief of Rajasthan

  • Rajasthan is the biggest state of India, thus it has diversity in its physical divisions.
  • Following are the nature of the reliefs of Rajasthan.
  1. High Peaks
  • Under this, those mountain peaks are included which are more than 900 meters in height.
  1. Mountain Range
  • Under this, the region having a height of 600 to 900 meter are included.
  • Most of the Aravalli range falls under this.
  • It is 6% of the total area of Rajasthan
  1. Highlands and Plateaus
  • This region has a height of 300 to 600 meter above from sea level.
  1. Plains
  • It is more than 51% of the total land in the state.
  • It has a height of 150 to 300 meters above sea level.
  • It is further divided into two parts: Desert region of Western Rajasthan and Eastern Plain.
  • Eastern plains are suitable lands for agriculture

Physical Division of Rajasthan

  • Rajasthan is divided into 4 physical divisions which have further sub-division.
  1. Plains of Western Desert
  • It is a special geographical region which is also called ‘The Great Indian Desert’ or ‘Thar Desert’.
  • It covers the districts like Barmer, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Pali, Jalore, Nagaur, Sikar, Churu, Jhunjhunu, Hanumangarh and Ganganagar.
  • It is further divided into 4 subcategories.

Sandy Arid Region

  • This is a dry region having annual rainfall of less than 25 centimetres.
  • Barmer, Bikaner and western part of Jodhpur and Churu are included in this region.
  • Sand Dunes are mostly found in this region.

Luni-Jawai Basin

  • It is a semi-arid plain.
  • Luni and its tributaries rivers flow in this region.
  • Pali, Jalor, Jodhpur and Nagaur are included in this region.
  • It is a river-based plain; hence it is called Luni Basin.

Shekhawati Region

  • It is also called ‘Banger Region’.
  • Jhunjhunu, Sikar and Churu and Northern part of Nagaur are included in it.
  • This is a sandy region having sand dunes of less height.
  • Here the sand dunes are of the transverse type.

Plain of Ghaghhar

  • Plains of Ganganagar and Hamumangarh are formed by the flow of Ghaghhar River.
  • Presently, this river is considered dead because it doesn’t have a flowing way.
  • Ghaghhar River is the ancient river Saraswati which is disappeared.
  • Thus it became a plain suitable for agriculture.
  1. Aravalli Range
  • It is the oldest mountain range in the world.
  • It has a length of 692 km from Delhi to Palanpur in Gujarat.
  • It is expanded in seven districts of Rajasthan: - Sirohi, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Ajmer, Jaipur, Dausa and Alwar.
  • It is divided into three subcategories.

Southern Aravalli Range

  • Sirohi, Udaipur and Rajsamand districts are included in it.
  • There are many high peaks located in this region which include Gurushikhar (1722 mt), the highest peak of Rajasthan, located in Sirohi district of Abu region.
  • Other famous peaks of these regions are Ser (1597 mt), Delwara (1442 mt), Achalgarh (1380 mt), Abu (1295 mt) and Rishikesh (1017 mt).
  • The highest peak of Udaipur-Rajsamand region is Jaraga (1431 mt). Other famous peaks of this region are Kumbhalgarh (1224 mt), Lilagarh (874 mt), Hills of Kamalnath (1001 mt) and Sajjangarh (938 mt).
  • Plateau of Bhorat is located between Kumbhalgarh and Godunda located northwest of Udaipur.
  • Following table shows the top 5 tallest peaks of this range.


Height (Meter)


Guru Shikhar















Central Aravalli Range

  • It is mainly expanded in the Ajmer district.
  • In the southwest of Ajmer, Taragarh (870 mt) and in west Naag Pahaad (795mt), is located.
  • There are four Passes of Aravalli Range in the Beawar Tehsil. They are Bar, Parveriya and Shivpur Ghat, Sura Ghat and Debari pass.
  • Following are some tallest peaks of this range.


Height (Meter)








Naag Pahad



Northern Aravalli Range

  • It is expanded in Jaipur, Dausa and Alwar district.
  • The common height of the hills in this region is 450 to 750 meters.
  • Some famous peaks of this range are Raghunathgarh (1055 mt) of Sikar district, Bairath (792 mt) of Alwar district and Khoh (920 mt) of Jaipur.
  • Following are some tallest peaks of this range


Height (Meter)


















  1. Eastern Plain
  • This region is in the east side of Aravalli region which includes districts like Bharatpur, Alwar, Dhaulpur, Karauli, Sawai Madhopur, Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk and Bhilwara.
  • This region is the River Basin region which is formed by the collection of soil by rivers.
  • This region has three sub-regions.

Banas-Baanganga Basin

  • This plain is formed by Banas River and its tributaries like Baanganga, Bedach, Kothari, Den, Sohadra, Manasi, Dhundha, Bandi, Morel, Vaagan, Gambhir, etc.
  • This plain has the height between 150 to 300 metres above the sea level and its slope is towards east.

Chambal Basin

  • This region includes districts like Kota, Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dhaulpur.
  • Ravines (Bihad) of Chambal are located in Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dhaulpur.

Central Mahi Basin or Chhappan Plain

  • It is expanded in the district of Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratapgarh.
  • Mahi River began its journey from Madhya Pradesh and flowing through Rajasthan and Gujrat falls in the Arabian Sea.
  • In Rajasthan, it flows through ‘Vagad’ (Local name for Laciniated land) region.
  • In between Pratapgarh and Banswara, a group of 56 villages is located, thus it is also called Chhappan Plain.
  1. South-Eastern Plateau Region or Hadoti Region
  • It is expanded in the districts like Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar and Baran.
  • This region has many mountains ranges having an average height of 500 meters.
  • Mukundara Hills and Bundi Hills are famous spots.
  • Chambal and its tributaries like Kalisindh, Paravan and Parvati flow in this region which is boon for agriculture in this region.


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