Paintings, Handicrafts, Fairs and Festivals
Fairs and Festivals of Rajasthan
- It celebrates two things – a woman’s love for her husband and the advent of the monsoon season.
- It is an auspicious event for women.
- A procession of Goddess Parvati is carried out in Jaipur with lots of devotees singing bhajans and dancing and enjoying the festival.
- It is a five days camel and livestock fair held in Pushkar.
- It is celebrated on Kartik Ekadashi when Pushkar Lake was supposed to be constructed by Brahma.
- This five days festival is celebrated with art, music, dance, puppet shows, gypsy dance, races, competitions, etc.
- It is celebrated in the golden city of Rajasthan, Jaisalmer.
- It’s a three-day event organized in the month of February.
- Camels also are one of the main highlights of this event as they take part in camel polo, camel dance and some other contests.
- The entire city of Jaisalmer is active with colours, music and dance, Rajasthani men and women dressed wonderfully in hued costumes sing and dance on the memorable ballads of valor, romance and tragedy.
- It is celebrated for eight days in the month of January and February.
- It is mainly known for animal trading like horses, cows, bullocks, oxen, camels etc.
- Animal races, cockfighting and Dancing and singing in the night are the main centre of attraction for tourist.
- It is organized by the Department of Animal Husbandry.
- This eighteen days festival is one of the most significant festivals for women of Rajasthan.
- It is celebrated in the honour of goddess Parvati, who is believed to be the goddess of marital happiness.
- Processions of Goddess Gauri are carried all over the city and everyone participates in these processions, often accompanied by elephant processions, old palanquins, chariots, folk song and dance and often ends with fireworks.
- It is celebrated in Bikaner.
- The two-day long festival is celebrated in the month of January.
- It includes camel races and games and a parade of decorated camels.
- It also includes Rajasthani Folk performances.
- It is celebrated in Udaipur on the occasion of the advent of the spring season.
- This festival includes a number of practices, like dressing the idols of Isar and Gangaur and carrying them in a conventional procession through different parts of the city.
- It is a three days festival.
- It is the most important festival of the Muslim community as it marks the death anniversary of the Sufi saint, Khwaja Moin-ud-din-Chisti.
- It is celebrated on the lakeside of Ajmer city.
- The festival takes place in the first six days of the seventh month of the Islamic calendar, known as Rajab.
- It is celebrated for six days because it is believed that the Khwaja Moinuddin cooked for six days before he left his mortal remains.
- International Desert Festival is celebrated in Jodhpur district.
- It’s a three days festival celebrated on the occasion of Makarsankranti.
- Colourful kites in the sky are the main centre of attraction for tourist.
- It is celebrated for two days in the Shukla Paksha of the Phagun month.
- This festival is dedicated to Lord Krishna.
- The best part of this festival is the Raslila dance performed with great zest and unity.
- The festival is celebrated with great splendour and ceremony in Deeg, Kaman and Bharatpur in the Bharatpur District.
- It flourished from the 16th century A.D. to 19th century A.D.
- It was inspired and influenced by Jain Manuscripts paintings of Gujarat.
- Paintings are mainly Puranic or Epic, Love poems and Indian folklore.
- The cults of Vaishnavism, Saivism and Sakti exercised tremendous influence on the pictorial art of these places.
- It is divided into 4 groups- Rajasthani School, Bundelkhand School, Pahari School and Sikh School.
- Famous centres in these regions are Jaipur, Mewar, Nathwada, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Kota, Bundi, Kishangarh etc.
- Based on the Natural scene, Architectural structure and Human figure.
- Faces are generally shown in profile.
- The figure shows suppleness and motion in their large eyes.
- Influence of Mughal court can be seen clearly in costumes and dresses.
Main centres of Rajasthani Paintings
- The typical characteristics of the painting are the use of contrasting colours, refinement of drawing due to the influence of the Mughal painting and ornaments and costumes consisting of black tassels and striped skirts.
- Some of the important paintings executed in the Malwa style are a series of the Rasikapriya (1634 A.D.), Amaru Sataka (1652 A.D.) and Ragamala by Madhu das (1680 A.D.).
- The art of painting in Malwa continued till the end of the 17th century A.D.
- The drawing is bold and the colours are bright and contrasting. The text of the painting is written in black on the top against the yellow ground.
- The earliest example of Mewar painting is a series of the Ragamala painted in 1605 A.D. at Chawand, a small place near Udaipur, by Misardi.
- Painting in Bundi started as early as circa 1625 A.D.
- A painting showing Bhairavi Ragini, in the Allahabad Museum is one of the earliest examples of Bundi painting.
- The painting has a border in a brilliant red colour.
- The peculiar characteristics of the Bundi painting, as evident in this miniature, are the rich and glowing colours, the rising sun in golden colour, crimson-red horizon, overlapping and semi-naturalistic trees.
- Themes of tiger and bear hunt were very popular at Kotah.
- Most of the space is occupied by the hilly jungle.
- The miniatures are executed in a primitive and vigorous folk style and are completely uninfluenced by the Mughal style.
- One of the earliest examples of painting in Marwar is a series of the Ragamala in the collection of Kumar Sangram Singh, painted by an artist named Virji in 1623 A.D. at Pali in Marwar.
- Influenced by Mughal paintings.
- One important artist Ali Raza "the Ustad (master) of Delhi", was employed by Raja Karan Singh of Bikaner in about 1650 A.D. Some other noteworthy artists who worked at the Bikaner court were Ruknuddin and his son Shahadin.
- The artist has executed types of human figures, delicately drawn, with slender bodies and uptilted eyes.
- the most charming school of Rajasthani painting in Kishangarh under the patronage of Raja Savant Singh (1748-1757 A.D.) who wrote devotional poetry in praise of Krishna, under the assumed name of Nagari Das.
Some Famous Paintings
- The love story of Dhola Maru is very popular in Rajasthan.
- Narrated both in Mural and Miniature.
- Date – Circa 1650 A.D.
- Artist:- Shahibdin
- RADHA AND KRISHNA
- Radha and Krishna are dancing on a bed covered with white sheet offering paan (Betel Leaf) to each other.
- Date: - Between 1735 A.D. to 1750 A.D.
- Artist:- Nihalchand
- Style:- Kishangarh Style
- Theme:- Paan Mehphil
- BHARAT MILAP
- Date: - 1740 A.D.
- Style:- Jaipur Style
- Theme:- Rama meets Bharat at Chitrakoot
- Artist:- Guman
- BANI THANI
- The painter was inspired by Raja Sawant Singh, who describes the beauty of a lady “BANI THANI” in his poem.
- Symbolically used to describe the beauty of Shri Radha.
- The smile is often compared with Mona Lisa.
- Date: - 1750 A.D.
- Artist:- Nihal Chand
- Style:- Kishangarh Style
Handicrafts of Rajasthan
- Kota Doriya
- This Saree is also called Mansuriya.
- In 1761, Zala Zalimsingh of Kota called a weaver from Mysore named Mahmud Mansuriya. Thus this saree is named after him.
- Kaithoon village of Kota is famous for Mansuriya.
- Sarees are made of pure cotton and silk having square like the pattern on it.
- Zari Work
- Zari is a thread made of golden and silver which is woven into fabrics. But nowadays these threads are not real.
- This tradition mainly flourished during the Mughal period.
- Jaipur is famous for Zari work.
- Tie and Dye
- Bandhej or Bandhani of Jaipur is famous.
- Bandhej is first tied and then workers dye the clothes. Thus when clothes are opened it has a painted design. Thus it is called Tie and Dye.
- Jhajham of Chittor is famous.
- Dabu Print
- Akola village of Chittorgarh is famous for Dabu printing.
- The portion where colour is not required is pressed with Loi or Lugadi. This Loi or Lugadi is called Dabu.
- These include Bedsheets, Clothes, Chundari, etc.
5. Ustan Art
- Golden Meenakari work did on the leather of Camel is called Ustan Art.
- This art was developed by Padma Shree Hissamudan Ustan of Bikaner.
- This art is done on Bottles, Mirror, Boxes, etc.
- Jaipur is famous worldwide for Meenakari.
- Meenakari art was brought by Maharaj Maansingh from Lahore.
- Black, Blue, Yellow, Red, Orange and Pink colours are used on gold for traditional Meenakari.
- Nathdwara is also a famous centre of Meenakari.
7. Lac Work
- Sawai Madhopur, Sikar and Bundi are famous for lac work on wooden toys.
- Jaipur, Hindaun and Karauli are famous for Lac work on bangles.
- Jaipur and Jodhpur are famous for Lac work.
8. Blue Pottery
- The credit of starting Blue Pottery in Jaipur goes to Maharaja Ramsingh.
- Paintings are done on pots and then a special liquid is applied to make that pot more shining and attractive.
- Blue pottery is an Iranian Art.
- Jaipur, Kota and Alwar are famous for this art.
9. Thewa Art
- Minute painting on glass using gold is Thewa Art.
- Coloured Belgium glass is used for Thewa art.
- Thewa Art needs very specialized and artistic work on glass using gold. Mainly done on Jewelry.
- This art is limited up to Pratapgarh.
- Jaipur is a famous centre for this art.
10. Leather Work
- Jaipur and Jodhpur are famous for Mojadi (Type of Shoe) decorated with starts and embroidery.
- Bhinmal and Jalaur are famous for embroidery Juttiya (Shoes).
- Sculptures and toys, etc made of baked earth are called terracotta.
- Molela village of Nathdwara district is the main centre of Terracotta work.
- Banuravta village of Nagaur is famous for clay toys, flower pot, animal and birds’ clay toy.
12. Sculpture Art
- Development of Sculpture art began during the period of the Maurya Dynasty.
- Dungarpur and Talwada’s Sompura tribe is famous for making stone sculptures.
13. Marble (Sangmarmar)
- Jaipur is famous for Marble stone sculptures.
- Meenakari on Marble is done in Jaipur.
- Makrana is the main centre of Marble.
14. Ivory work
- Ivory work is mainly done in Jaipur, Udaipur, Bharatpur, Pali and Medata.
- Black, Green and Red bangles made of ivory are made in Jodhpur.
- Ivory Bangles are worn by Rajput women during the marriage.
15. Mat and Carpet work
- Jaipur and Tonk are famous for Mat industry.
- The mat of Jaipur is famous for its Dark colour and attractive design.
- Tankla village of Nagaur is famous for Carpet.