The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is India's first wildlife sanctuary, mostly popular for its Tiger Reserve. The sanctuary is spread over 321 sq. km in the district of Nilgiri in Tamil Nadu. The Reserve is located at the tri-junction of three states - Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala.
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve History
The State Government of Tamil Nadu declared Mudumalai as a Tiger Reserve with a buffer zone of 367.59 km2 in April 2007 under Section 38V of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972. The step was taken to conserve the dwindling Tiger population in India.
Since 1986, the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve has been part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve because of its strategic position as a Wildlife Corridor. It is surrounded by protected wildlife areas, thus making the National Park an important part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
Important Facts about Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
Wildlife Corridor -
The Reserve is bordered by protected wildlife areas like Kerala's Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary on the West and Karnataka's Bandipur Tiger Reserve on the North. The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is also linked to the forested slopes of the Nilgiris, which slides into the Mukurthi National Park in the South and further connects to the Silent Valley in Kerala.
The major corridors of the Reserve are -
- Moyar Valley - Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve - Biligiri Ranganatha Temple Tiger Reserve - Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary
- Mudumalai - Mukurthi National Park - Silent Valley National Park
- There are four small corridors along with the Moyar Valley-Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary in the buffer zone that facilitate the seasonal migration of elephants between the Western and the Eastern Ghats.
Fauna Diversity -
The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is most popular for its flagship species like the Asian Elephant and tigers. Additionally, Mudumalai has a rich faunal assemblage that includes predators like Leopard, Wild Dog, and others like Gaur, Spotted Deer, Sambar, Barking Deer, Blackbuck, Wild Boar, Jungle Fowl, etc.
Among reptiles, the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is home to Python, Monitor Lizards, Flying Lizards, Indian Star Tortoise, etc.; and 260 species of birds like Hornbill, Fairy Blue Birds, Minivets, etc.
Floral Diversity -
The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve has a rich habitat of floral diversity including a range of tropical evergreen forests, moist deciduous and teak forests, dry teak forests, scrub forests, and secondary grasslands and swamps.
Furthermore, there is also a wide variety of cultivated plants such as turmeric, ginger, pepper, wild rice, cinnamon, guava, mango, etc.
Significance of the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve plays a major role in -
- conserving tigers and Asian Elephants
- securing an unpolluted space for tigers
- monitoring tigers with camera traps
- keeping day-to-day track of tigers and other wild animals
- preventing habitat interventions
- regulating tourism
- taking measures for field and fire protection.
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Tourist Attractions in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
Major tourist attractions in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve are -
- Elephant Feeding Camp
- Theppakadu Elephant Camp
- Jungle Safaris
- Moyar River
- Pykara Lake
- Kallatty Falls
FAQs on Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
Q.1. Where is the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve located?
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is located in the Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu. The Reserve lies 36 km from Ooty from Kalhatty and 67 km via Gudalur. From Mysore, it is 91 km away. It is located at the tri-junction of three states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala.
Q.2. What is the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve famous for?
The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is most famous for its Tiger Reserve, Elephant camps, and rich flora and fauna diversity.
Q.3. Why is the location of the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve of strategic importance?
The Reserve lies at the tri-junction of three states - Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala. Furthermore, several wildlife corridors pass through the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. This makes the Reserve an essential part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
Q.4. How many species of birds are present in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve located?
There are 260 species of birds in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, including Hornbill, Fairy Blue Birds, Minivets, etc.
Q.5. What are the popular tourist attractions in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve?
Popular tourist attractions in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve are the tiger reserve, jungle safaris, elephant camp, etc.