Who is the Father of Physics? [Galileo Galilei]

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Aug 3, 2022, 16:10

The title of "Father of Physics" has been earned by 3 great people - Galileo, Isaac Newton, and Albert Einstein. But, according to records available to historians, physics is as old as the Archaic period in Greece (650-480 BC). Whether it was Thales' discovery of water as a fundamental element or Anaximander's proto-evolutionary theory that proposed Apeiron as a primary element, the Greeks contributed a lot to the field of Physics.

However, if asked 'Who is the father of modern physics?' we'd have to visit the early 16th century, the times of Galileo Galilei, to find the answer. Besides Galileo, Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein also contributed massively to physics. Hence, the title of the father of physics in the world goes to three renowned scientists: Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, and Albert Einstein.

Who is the Father of Physics? Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642)

Galileo Galilei, who is Father of Physics, was an Italian mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He earned the nickname "Father of Physics" because of his pioneering role in finding the motion of bodies and developing the telescope. Incidentally, he confirmed Venus's phases using the telescope and discovered Jupiter's four largest moons.

Learners have been studying his empirical experiments and astronomical discoveries to this day. For example, at 19, Galileo discovered and verified the pendulum's isochronal nature and timed a swinging lamp's oscillations in the Pisa Cathedral.

  • He also invented the concept of 'Hydrostatic Balance' and produced a treatise on solid bodies' centre of gravity.
  • Galileo's experiments on the laws of bodies in motion were subject to intense criticism since they deviated strongly from the Aristotelian physics school's established norms.
  • However, Galileo's theories and concepts formed the basis of the Laws of Motion (Newton) and the Theory of Relativity (Einstein).

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Who is the Father of Modern Physics? Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727)

Sir Isaac Newton was associated with Cambridge University as a physicist and mathematician. He was also a fellow Royal Society of England. Newton, the Father of Physics in World, became famous for his three laws of motion which established the connection between motion and objects.

  • He also discovered the Law of Universal Gravitation, which has been instrumental in defining the behaviour of falling bodies, including planets and celestial bodies.
  • Newton also invented calculus in mathematics, which became an integral part of physics shortly after.
  • Newton, who is the first father of physics, published his findings in the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), a publication that changed the field of mechanics and astronomy forever.

Who is the Father of Modern Physics? Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955)

Albert Einstein transformed the landscape of physics with his Theory of Relativity and played an instrumental role in designing the theory of Quantum Mechanics.

  • Albert Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula E = mc2 has etched his name in history books as the greatest physicist of all times.
  • Because of his pioneering role in the field of modern science, and in general and theoretical physics in particular, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921.
  • He founded the law of the Photoelectric Effect, which played a pivotal role in the formation of the Quantum Theory.

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Father of Physics in India

If you are curious about the father of physics in India, check out the table below about the Top Physicists in India. Read to know their important contribution to the field of Physics.

Father of Physics in India


Sir C.V. Raman.

Field of light scattering.

Satyendranath Bose.

He specialized in theoretical physics.

Meghnad Saha.

Developed the Saha ionization equation, which describes chemical and physical conditions in stars.

Homi J. Bhabha.

He is known for the Indian nuclear program Cascade process of Cosmic radiation point particles.

Subrahmanyam Chandrashekhar.

He did theoretical studies of the physical processes of the structure and evolution of the stars.

Vikram Sarabhai.

Initiated space research and helped create nuclear power in India.

G.N Ramachandran.

He created the Ramachandran plot for understanding peptide structure.

Jayant Narlikar.

He developed the conformal gravity theory, known as Hoyle–Narlikar theory. It synthesizes Albert Einstein's theory of relativity and Mach's principle.

Harish Chandra.

He did his entire work in representation theory, especially harmonic analysis on semisimple Lie groups.

Sandip Chakrabarti.

He designed a computer model to show how life on earth could have formed in outer space.

Father of Physics FAQs

Q.1) Who is the world's most renowned father of physics?

Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newton, and Albert Einstein are the Fathers of Modern Physics. They have earned the title because of their marvellous discoveries in the field of physics.

Q.2) What is the name of the father of observational physics?

Galileo Galilei is the name of father of Observational Physics. He discovered mountains and cavities on the moon, the phases of Venus planet, Jupiter's moons, the stars of the Milky Way, and the first pendulum clock.

Q.3) What is the notable contribution of Albert Einstein to physics?

Albert Einstein invented the Theory of Relativity and played an instrumental role in designing the theory of Quantum Mechanics. He presented the three laws of motion in 1686.

Q.4) What is the notable contribution of Sir Isaac Newton to physics?

Newton conceptualized the three laws of motion that established a connection between motion and objects. He also discovered the Law of Universal Gravitation.

Q.5) What is the notable contribution of Galileo Galilei to physics?

Galileo Galilei is known for his pioneering role in finding the motion of bodies and developing the telescope. He also launched a series of devices that would profoundly impact surveying, artillery use, clocks' development, and meteorology.

Q.6) Who is the Father of Nuclear Physics?

Sir Ernest Rutherford is the Father of Nuclear Physics. He invented the concept of radioactive half-life, proved alpha and beta radiations in different elements, and later became one of the world's most outstanding experimentalists.

Q.7) Who is Father of Quantum Physics?

The two fathers of Quantum Physics are Niels Bohr and Max Planck. They received Nobel Prize for their work on quanta. Einstein is considered the third inventor of Quantum Theory because he explained light as quanta in his Photoelectric Effect theory.

Q.8) Who is Known as the Father of Physics and Chemistry?

The best-known Father of Physics is Isaac Newton, whereas the Father of Chemistry is Antoine Lavoisier. The scientists have received the titles due to their immense contributions in their respective fields.

Q.9) How to write Father of Physics in Hindi?

Physics के जनक (Father of physics in Hindi) गैलिलिओ गैलिलेइ (Galileo Galilei) है। अगर भौतिक विज्ञान के जनक की बात की जाए तो इसमें गैलिलिओ गैलिलेइ (Galileo Galilei), न्यूटन और Albert Einstein का नाम लिया जाता है।

Q.10) Who is famous as the Father of Experimental Physics?

Galileo Galilei was also called "the father of experimental science." Galileo experimented with his ideas through investigations and conveyed them in mathematical form.

Q.11) Who has earned the title of "Father of Classical Physics"?

Galileo Galilei earned the title of Father of Classical Physics. The particular branch of Physics involves classical mechanics (the study of the movement of fluids and particles), thermodynamics, and electromagnetism.

Q.12) Who is regarded as Father of Nuclear Physics in India?

The most famous father of Nuclear Physics in India is Homi Jenhagir Bhabha. He developed the Nuclear Program in India. Dr.Bhabha also established the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) for nuclear science research in 1945.