SADAAN OF JHARKHAND
Sadans are the original non-tribal people of Jharkhand, but not all non-tribes are Sadans, are native Indo-Aryan speaking ethnolinguistic groups of Jharkhand. The Sadan are referred as ‘Sad Perewa’ (House pigeon) as they live in community and not in forests•
- In terms of language, a non-tribal person whose language is basically Khortha, Nagpuri, Panchapargani and Kurmali is the Sadan.
Sadan is an Aryan in terms of race. Some Dravidians are also called Sadans. Sadan always lived with Munda and Oraon in the royal system or in other business activities. Munda and Oraon were welcomed by the Sadans in the region as they were earlier inhabitants. The British succeeded in imposing the surname “Diku” under a conspiracy policy, which confused the tribals and the Kol rebellion of 1831–32, in which, the Sadans and Adivasis clashed. Later, Birsa Munda understood this British conspiracy and he had targeted only the British.
There are many Sadan castes, whose gotras are Avadhiya, Kanaujia, Tirhutia, Gaur, Dakhinaha, etc. This shows that their original place is somewhere outside. Sadans are also sub-divided in different castes like Dhanuk, Paan, Raotiya, Swasi, Sarak, Molar, and Bauri, etc.
Social and Cultural Framework of Houses:
The cultural structure of the Sadans and Adivasis is almost the same. The cultural structure of the Sadan family is mostly like that of the Sanatani family, but many social, religious and cultural functions are performed like the tribals, such as wedding, festival, dance-song, language, etc.
Every Sadan has different religion like Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, etc. They worship ‘Sheetal Devi’. Some Sadans are influenced by the Vaishnava tradition. Sadan people also worship deity. Along with Ojha Mati, witchcraft and ghost are also popular.
Sadans traditionally wear dhoti, kurta, gamchha, chadar.
The Sadan people use jewellery ware in Bengal and Bihar. Jewellery like pola, sankha, bracelet, nettle, necklace, clavicle, sikari, chhchi, bullak, basar, nathiya, tarki, karan, etc. are prevalent. Tattooing is also practised in the houses like that of the tribals.
Keeping brass and bronze utensils in the houses is considered a sign of prosperity.
Sadans use nets, kumani bansidag, polai and tools like arrow-bows, swords, spears, lathis, tongs, etc., for hunting, just like the tribals. The tradition of holding guns by the Sadans came due to zamindari.
The festivals of Sadans are Holi, Sohrai (Diwali), Dussehra, Kali-Puja, Jitiya, Sohrai, Karama, Sarhul, Makar Sankranti, Tusu, Teej, Mansa, Sheetla, Bad Pahari, etc.
Dance and Song:
The collective dance of girls takes place in Akhara in Karma Utsav. Apart from this, women also dance in marriage. Dumkach, Jhumta, Jhumar, etc., are all group dances. Ghatwari dance, Jamda dance, Chokra dance, Santhal dance, Luri Savari dance, Rajput Jhalak dance—all these dances together are called colourful or male dance.
The songs of the Sadans are named after their raga and sur. Such as Dumkach, Jhumta, Agnayi, Sohar, Mardani Jhumar, Sohrai, etc.
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