FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF JHARKHAND
- He was born in a Santhal family on 11th February, 1750, in Tilakpur near Sultanganj (Bihar), was named as Sundra Murmu.
- He was the first Adivasi leader who united the Santhals and organised an upsurge against the British and started a rebellion against these foreign rulers from Vanchrijor in Bhagalpur.
- When British officer, Augustus Cleveland, began to follow the policy of divide and rule, he took the chieftains of 40 hill villages in his confidence and freed them from all kinds of taxes.
- Tilka Manjhi took it as an opportunity to arouse confidence in the people, because other tribes had to pay taxes.
- Now not only Santhals, but people of other tribes also stood with Tilka Manjhi. In 1784, Tilka, along with his supporters, attacked British official Augustus Cleveland who died later.
- Tilka was executed at Bhagalpur by the British on 13th January, 1785.
- He was born in Silagai village of Chanho block, Ranchi district on 17th February, 1792.
- He belonged to the Oraon tribe. He was athletic.
- Buddhu Bhagat was the first revolutionary of Jharkhand, who was declared a reward of 1000 rupees by the British Government.
- In 1831, dissatisfaction arising out of losing their land, not getting justice, and severe persecution of landlords gave birth to Kol movement (1831-32).
- Thousands of tribes took part in the revolt against the British under the leadership of Buddhu Bhagat.
- The guns and bullets of the British forces won the battle against the bows and arrows of the rebels.
- On 10th February, 1832, four thousand rebels surrendered and arrested. Buddhu Bhagat was killed on 13th February, 1832, along with hundreds of his followers.
- His sons Haldhar and Giridhar were also killed by the British army.
Pandey Ganpat Rai
- He was born in village Bhauron of Lohardaga district on 17th January, 1809.
- Ganpat Rai succeeded his uncle Sadashiva Rai after his death to the post of Diwan of Chhota Nagpur.
- Jagannath Sahadev, the successor of Chhota Nagpur, was overthrown by the British and made an English officer Adam Hume as the manager there, he soon revolted against the British.
- The Revolt of 1857, in Doranda Cantonment was led by Ganpat Rai and King Vishwanath Sahadeva.
- The British captured Ganpat Rai with the help of traitor, zamindar Mahesh Saha.
- On 21 April 1858, he was hanged on the same Kadamb tree on which Thakur Vishwanath Shahdev was hanged at the gate of Ranchi’s district school.
- He was born on 9th February, 1806, in village Murgu under Sisai block of Gumla district.
- He had established ‘Jury System’ through which young people were trained in warfare.
- Telanga Kharia had established Jury Panchayats in Murgu, Jura, Doisa, Soso, Nimtoli, Dunduria, Baghima, Nathpur, Bendaura, Kolebira, Mahabuang and Kumhari villages of Gumla district.
- Bodhan Singh killed him on 23rd April, 1880. His mausoleum is called ‘Telanga Topa Dand’. On April 23, the day of his death is celebrated as ‘Martyrdom Day’.
Sidhu and Kanhu
- Sidhu was born in 1815 and Kanhu in 1820. They, together with their two other brothers Chand and Bharoon, shook the foundation of British rule.
- Both the brothers adopted peaceful and constitutional means before commencing the revolt.
- Both the brothers urged the people to send one man from each family to join the rebel forces being organised by them.
- A big meeting was organised at Bhagnadih (now in Sahibganj) on 30th June, 1855. Sidhu was elected as the King, Kanhu as a minister, Chand as administrator and Bharoon as commander.
- On 10th July 1855, Sidhu and Kanhu defeated a British contingent force, which was sent to crush their revolt. They captured the palace of Amber Pargana (located at Pakur) and started proceeding towards Murshidabad.
- Sidhu and Kanhu were arrested due to the treachery of their supporters.
- On 26th July, 1856, the British Government executed them.
- He along with Ganpat Rai led the ‘Doranda Sainik Rebellion’ against the British
- Vishwanath belonged to the Nagbanshi Rajput and was related to the Maharaja of Chhota Nagpur of Palakot.
- He decided to fight for the freedom of the country, but he waited for an opportunity to join the anti-British movement.
- In 1855, he revolted against British rule and declared himself independent. \
Ganga Narain Singh
- He was the first tribal leader who exploited the frustration and anger of the Bhumij tribes against the British Government.
- He was a cousin of Madhav Singh, who was the Zamindar of Barabhum. • He appealed to the people for the preparation of a struggle against the dikus.
- He promised to relieve them of the oppression of Madhav Singh.
- Madhav Singh had doubled the taxes realised from Bhumij.
- In 1832, the Bhumij peasants and other nature fighters attacked the court of English Munsif.
- Nilamber-Pitamber prepared a strong organisation of the Bhogtas and the Kharwars.
- Both brothers were deeply influenced by the events that led to the destruction of the army camp of Doranda in 1857.
- They secured the support of the Jagirdar of Chero in order to strengthen the rebel forces.
Tikait Umrao Singh
- He was born in Khatanga village under Ormanjhi block of Ranchi district.
- He was a Zamindar of 12 villages.
- In order to save the revolutionaries from the British onslaught at the time of Doranda Revolt, he sealed the route connecting Hazaribagh and Ranchi.
- The British arrested Tikait on 6th January, 1858, and he was sentenced to death.
- He was born on 15th November, 1875, in Ulihatu village of Arki block under the Khunti district which was a subdivision till 11th September, 2007.
- Birsa’s father’s name was Sugna Munda and mother’s name was Karami Hatu.
- He participated in the agitation which was caused by the restrictions imposed upon the traditional rights of the Mundas in the protected forest in the Porhat area.
- He claimed to be ‘the father of the Earth’ (Dharti Aaba) and a messenger of God.
- He laid down a strict code of conduct prohibiting theft, lying, begging and murder.
- The people regarded him as their ‘Singhbonga’ or Sun god, the good spirit that watches over them.
- He was looked upon as in the incarnation of’ ‘Khasra Kora’ who had destroyed the Asurs.
- In 1899, Birsa organised as many as sixteen meetings of his followers. He now advocated a violent and turbulent method to achieve the ouster of the British.
- A large majority of Christian Mundas joined the movement.
- Insurrection provoked by Birsa broke out at several places at Khunti, Karra, Torpa, Tamar, Gumla etc.
- On 3rd February, 1900, Birsa was arrested and died of cholera in the prison of Ranchi on 9th June, 1900.
Babu Ram Narayan Singh
- He was born on 19th December, 1885, in Chatra.
- He was a political activist who supported Gandhiji in uniting people to take part in the NonCooperation Movement and the Quit India Movement.
- After Independence, he was elected as a member of Parliament from the Chatra constituency.
- ‘Swaraj Lut Gaya’ was written by Babu Ram Narain Singh.
- He was given the title Chhota Nagpur Kesari by Rajendra Prasad.
- He was born in September, 1888, in the village Chingri or Chepri Nawatoli near Gumla.
- In 1914, he claimed to have been inspired by the Supreme God of the Oraons to work for the restoration of the ancient ‘Kurikh’ religion.
- In April, 1914, he proclaimed to his fellow villagers that during his prayer, he had seen a luminous figure (Dharmes). Dharmes (God) had given him the order to spread his message of truth.
- He advocated to abjure all animal sacrifices, animals’ food and liquor, and to give up ploughing their fields which entailed cruelty to cows and oxen.
- Jatra Bhagat started the Tana Bhagat movement in April 1914.
- When Gandhiji came to Ranchi in 1918, Gandhiji was introduced to Tana Bhagat. He attended the Gaya congress session of 1922 and the campaign against Simon Commission in 1928 AD.
- The British repression cycle continued even after the Kol rebellions of 1820–21 and 1830–32.
- In this area, the Southwest Frontier Agency was established and Captain Thomas Wilkinson was appointed as an agent, against whom the rebellion of 22 victims led by Poto Sardar of Rajbasa Pid (locality) of Serengasia Valley located in the Tonto block of Kolhan region started.
- Ho rebels held secret meetings in Walandia. It was decided to take over the Serengasia and Bagalia valleys. The Gram Pradhan sent arrows and invited them to join the rebellion. The British did not even anticipate that the tribals would protest so bravely.
- Distracted by this, Wilkinson held a meeting of his officers on 12 November 1837 in Chaibasa.
- On November 19, 1837, the rebel army of Poto Sardar attacked Armstrong’s detachment. A fierce battle ensued and the Company’s army had to face defeat.
- After this, the British attacked the village of Poto Sardar and nearby villages. His father was imprisoned. The village of Tadaghatu was set on fire and rebellion was suppressed with barbarity.
- On 8 December 1837, Poto Sardar was arrested. On 1 January 1838, Poto Sardar, ‘Naro Ho’ and ‘Baday Ho’ were hanged by thousands of Serengasia Valley fighters in Jagannathpur.
- A day later, on January 2, 1838, ‘Bodo Ho’ and ‘Pandua Ho’ were hanged in public in the village of Serengasia
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