Topics to be Covered
Networks, Signals and Systems
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, equilibrium carrier concentration, direct and indirect band-gap semiconductors.
Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson, and continuity equations. P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photodiode, and solar cell.
Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, and rectifiers.
BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, ac coupling, small-signal analysis, frequency response. Current mirrors and differential amplifiers.
Op-amp circuits: Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers, and oscillators
Number representations: binary, integer, and floating-point- numbers.
Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates, and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders.
Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters, shift-registers, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay.
Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs, and DACs.
Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM.
Computer organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, data-path, and control unit, instruction pipelining
Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.
Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems.
Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers.
Information theory: entropy, mutual information, and channel capacity theorem.
Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, inter-symbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR, and BER.
Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, CRC.
Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector.
Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth.
Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart.
Rectangular and circular waveguides, light propagation in optical fibers, dipole and monopole antennas, linear antenna arrays.