Disintegration of Soviet Union

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 10, 2022, 7:59

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), also referred to as the Soviet Union, was a group of provinces formed in 1922. The USSR came into existence after the completion of the popular Russian Revolution. On the 30th of December 1992, different provinces came together to form a communist state known as the USSR. Vladimir Lenin became the first leader of the USSR after its formation.

The USSR was formed to reflect the meaning of true democracy. However, the USSR converted into a totalitarian state with time. The USSR became a communist state with only one government allowed to rule it every time. However, during the USSR regime, the communist state accumulated war supplies and became a major military power in the world. During WWII, the USSR grabbed the chance to become a major military power. Read on to know more about the Disintegration of Soviet Union.

Glasnost ERA - Overview

The Glasnost era promoted by Mikhail Gorbachev played an important role in the Disintegration of Soviet Union. Mikhail Gorbachev paved the way for reforms in the USSR region. He assumed power in the USSR in 1985 and bought several reforms. Under his regime, print media could criticise the government when needed in the USSR. Mikhail Gorbachev also allowed other non-communist parties to participate in the USSR elections.

Mikhail Gorbachev was among the first leaders of the USSR that showed signs of political openness. Apart from being a military power, he wanted to make the USSR a productive state. He gave several rights to the citizens of the USSR. For example, Mikhail Gorbachev lifted the ban on books that criticised the communist government. He allowed the USSR citizens to develop their ideas about governance, communism, and democracy.

When Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the second set of policies for economic restructuring, he realised that things are from being healed. Rationing and food scarcity had already occurred in the USSR. As a result, the government of Mikhail Gorbachev started receiving criticism. It was the start of the Disintegration of Soviet Union.

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The decline and ultimate Disintegration of Soviet Union

Revolutions before disintegration

Disintegration of USSR

The USSR had a grip over many European regions and regularly intervened in their internal matters.

Gradually, the revolutions moved from Easter Europe to regions in the USSR. Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia already declared their independence.

Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policy of non-intervention and removed USSR troops from Afghanistan. On the 15th of February 1989, USSR forces withdrew themselves from Afghanistan.

On the 18th of August 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev was placed under house arrest by communist party members.

In 1989, many trade unions in Poland protested for transparent elections.

Boris Yeltsin led the group of protestors to defeat the communist party members that placed Gorbachev under house arrest.

Following the revolution in Poland, entire Eastern Europe protested against communism, which resulted in the fall of the Berlin Wall.

Due to his heroic act, Boris Yeltsin gained fame in Russia. On the 25th of December 1991, Gorbachev resigned as the leader of the USSR making way for Yeltsin as the leader of Russia.

☛ Also Read: Weekly Current Affairs

The USSR was formed to represent democracy but ended up becoming a communist state. It is what led to the downfall of the USSR as a superstate. Questions regarding the Disintegration of Soviet Union are often asked in competitive papers. You can use this guide to prepare for the same.

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FAQs on Disintegration of Soviet Union

Q.1. What were the Belovezha Accords in 1991, that led to the Disintegration of Soviet Union?

Belovexha Accords was an agreement between the leader of Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus in 1991 that led to the Disintegration of Soviet Union.

Q.2. With regards to the Disintegration of Soviet Union, What ended the cold war in 1991?

With regards to the Disintegration of Soviet Union, The split of the USSR ended the long-lasting cold war in 1991.

Q.3. What happened to the individual provinces after the Disintegration of Soviet Union?

After the Disintegration of Soviet Union in 1991, 15 independent states were formed.

Q.4. When did the last premier of the USSR resign from his position, in the context of the Disintegration of Soviet Union?

In the context of the Disintegration of Soviet Union, Gorbachev resigned as the last leader of the USSR on the 25th of December 1991.