Why was the Non-Cooperation Movement started in 1920 and why was the movement called off in 1922?

By Harshal Vispute|Updated : August 16th, 2022

The Indian National Congress (INC), led by Mahatma Gandhi, began the Non-Cooperation Movement on September 5, 1920. The Non-Cooperation program was introduced by the party in September 1920 during a Congress session in Calcutta. The non-cooperation movement is said to have existed from September 1920 to February 1922. It represented the beginning of a new era in the Indian liberation struggle's history.

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre served as inspiration for the Non-Cooperation Movement, which was later put on hold due to the Chauri Chaura tragedy in 1922. The main proponent of the non-cooperation movement was Mahatma Gandhi. He published a manifesto in March 1920 outlining the movement's nonviolent noncooperation stance. Through this manifesto, Gandhi wished for everyone to:

  • Adopt swadeshi values.
  • Take up Swadeshi customs like hand spinning and weaving.
  • Work to have untouchability eliminated from society

Why Non-Cooperation Movement Started Why it is Called off in 1922?

  • Essentially, the movement was a non-violent, non-violent protest against the Indian government of the British.
  • As a protest, Indians were urged to renounce their titles and resign from their appointed positions in the local bodies.
  • People were requested to leave their positions with the government.
  • People were urged to remove their kids from institutions and universities that were run by or received funding from the government.
  • People were urged to stop buying imported goods and exclusively utilize products created in India.
  • People were urged to abstain from voting in the legislative council elections.
  • No one was allowed to enlist in the British military.
  • It was also intended for people to stop paying taxes if the aforementioned measures did not produce the desired results.
  • The INC also called for self-government or Swarajya.
  • Only absolutely non-violent methods would be used to enforce the requests.
  • The non-cooperation campaign marked a turning point in the independence movement because it signalled the INC's initial willingness to forgo constitutional measures in Favour of self-government.
  • If this campaign is carried through to its conclusion, Swaraj would be attained in a year, according to Gandhiji.
  • Following the Chauri Chaura tragedy in February 1922, Gandhiji decided to put an end to the campaign.
  • During a fight between the police and movement protesters in Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, a violent crowd set fire to a police station, killing 22 policemen.

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  • The Chauri Chaura event, which took place in February 1922 and comprised a rally that turned violent and ended in the deaths of multiple police officers, marked the end of the non-cooperation movement, which had been established in 1920.

  • The uprising completely caught the British rulers off guard and greatly inspired millions of Indian patriots. Along with the establishment of numerous Indian institutions and universities, the nation's unity was enhanced.

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