- The process of turning crude oil into usable goods is known as petroleum refining. Separation, conversion, and treatment are steps in the process.
- Since there is little variation in the boiling points of hydrocarbons, crude oil is heated in a furnace so that the hydrocarbons can be separated by fractional distillation.
- The heaviest fractions settle in the bottom of the fractionating tower because they condense early and easily, while the lightest fraction, gasoline, rises to the top of the tower.
- Then, a hydrocarbon is changed into another hydrocarbon that is wanted. Finally, the desired features are obtained by the treatment.
Why petroleum is referred to as black gold?
Petroleum is commonly referred to as "black gold" because crude oil is black when extracted from the ground. Some people refer to it as gold due to its value and oils. Even though there is less of it, it is quite valuable economically. Crude oil is jet black before purification but turns golden after purification; hence, it is labeled as gold.