1. Why do transition elements show variable oxidation states? 2. Name the element showing the maximum number of oxidation states among the first series of transition metals from Sc (Z = 21) to Zn (Z = 30). 3. Name the element which shows only +3 oxidation state.

By K Balaji|Updated : November 13th, 2022
  1. The transition elements show variable oxidation states because their valence electrons are in two different sets of orbitals, i.e. in (n - 1)d and ns orbitals.
  2. Manganese is the element showing the maximum number of oxidation states among the first series of transition metals from Sc (Z = 21) to Zn (Z = 30).
  3. Scandium is the element which shows only +3 oxidation state.

Variable oxidation states in transition elements

  • Because their valence electrons are in two separate sets of orbitals, namely in (n - 1)d and ns orbitals, transition elements exhibit varying oxidation states.
  • Since there is little energy difference between these orbitals, bonds can form at either energy level.
  • Consequently, transition elements have varied oxidation states as a result of this.

The first transition series element having the most oxidation states

  • Manganese, i.e. Mn (Z = 25), has an electronic configuration [Ar]3d54s2.
  • In the d-subshell, it has the most unpaired electrons.
  • A total of 5 + 2 = 7 electrons are available for bond creation because both the d and s orbitals are employed to create bonds.
  • Therefore, among the first series of transition metals, Mn has the greatest oxidation state of +7.

Element that only exhibits the +3 oxidation state

  • In these series, scandium (Sc) has a +3 oxidation state.
  • The electronic configuration of Scandium (Sc) is [Ar]3d¹4s².
  • There are a total of 1 + 2 = 3 electrons available for bond creation because the d and s orbitals are both employed to create bonds.
  • As a result, (Sc) displays a +3 oxidation state.

Summary:-

  1. Because their valence electrons are in two separate sets of orbitals, namely in (n - 1)d and ns orbitals, the transition elements exhibit various oxidation states.
  2. When compared to the other elements in the first series of transition metals, which range from Sc (Z = 21) to Zn (Z = 30), manganese exhibits the most oxidation states.
  3. Scandium is an element that only exhibits +3 oxidation.

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